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#![cfg(any(not(Py_LIMITED_API), Py_3_11))]
// Copyright (c) 2017 Daniel Grunwald
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this
// software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software
// without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge,
// publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons
// to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
//
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or
// substantial portions of the Software.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
// INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
// PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE
// FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR
// OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
// DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

//! `PyBuffer` implementation
use crate::Bound;
#[cfg(feature = "gil-refs")]
use crate::PyNativeType;
use crate::{err, exceptions::PyBufferError, ffi, FromPyObject, PyAny, PyResult, Python};
use std::marker::PhantomData;
use std::os::raw;
use std::pin::Pin;
use std::{cell, mem, ptr, slice};
use std::{ffi::CStr, fmt::Debug};

/// Allows access to the underlying buffer used by a python object such as `bytes`, `bytearray` or `array.array`.
// use Pin<Box> because Python expects that the Py_buffer struct has a stable memory address
#[repr(transparent)]
pub struct PyBuffer<T>(Pin<Box<ffi::Py_buffer>>, PhantomData<T>);

// PyBuffer is thread-safe: the shape of the buffer is immutable while a Py_buffer exists.
// Accessing the buffer contents is protected using the GIL.
unsafe impl<T> Send for PyBuffer<T> {}
unsafe impl<T> Sync for PyBuffer<T> {}

impl<T> Debug for PyBuffer<T> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut std::fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> std::fmt::Result {
        f.debug_struct("PyBuffer")
            .field("buf", &self.0.buf)
            .field("obj", &self.0.obj)
            .field("len", &self.0.len)
            .field("itemsize", &self.0.itemsize)
            .field("readonly", &self.0.readonly)
            .field("ndim", &self.0.ndim)
            .field("format", &self.0.format)
            .field("shape", &self.0.shape)
            .field("strides", &self.0.strides)
            .field("suboffsets", &self.0.suboffsets)
            .field("internal", &self.0.internal)
            .finish()
    }
}

/// Represents the type of a Python buffer element.
#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug, Eq, PartialEq)]
pub enum ElementType {
    /// A signed integer type.
    SignedInteger {
        /// The width of the signed integer in bytes.
        bytes: usize,
    },
    /// An unsigned integer type.
    UnsignedInteger {
        /// The width of the unsigned integer in bytes.
        bytes: usize,
    },
    /// A boolean type.
    Bool,
    /// A float type.
    Float {
        /// The width of the float in bytes.
        bytes: usize,
    },
    /// An unknown type. This may occur when parsing has failed.
    Unknown,
}

impl ElementType {
    /// Determines the `ElementType` from a Python `struct` module format string.
    ///
    /// See <https://docs.python.org/3/library/struct.html#format-strings> for more information
    /// about struct format strings.
    pub fn from_format(format: &CStr) -> ElementType {
        match format.to_bytes() {
            [size] | [b'@', size] => native_element_type_from_type_char(*size),
            [b'=' | b'<' | b'>' | b'!', size] => standard_element_type_from_type_char(*size),
            _ => ElementType::Unknown,
        }
    }
}

fn native_element_type_from_type_char(type_char: u8) -> ElementType {
    use self::ElementType::*;
    match type_char {
        b'c' => UnsignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_char>(),
        },
        b'b' => SignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_schar>(),
        },
        b'B' => UnsignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_uchar>(),
        },
        b'?' => Bool,
        b'h' => SignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_short>(),
        },
        b'H' => UnsignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_ushort>(),
        },
        b'i' => SignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_int>(),
        },
        b'I' => UnsignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_uint>(),
        },
        b'l' => SignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_long>(),
        },
        b'L' => UnsignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_ulong>(),
        },
        b'q' => SignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_longlong>(),
        },
        b'Q' => UnsignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<raw::c_ulonglong>(),
        },
        b'n' => SignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<libc::ssize_t>(),
        },
        b'N' => UnsignedInteger {
            bytes: mem::size_of::<libc::size_t>(),
        },
        b'e' => Float { bytes: 2 },
        b'f' => Float { bytes: 4 },
        b'd' => Float { bytes: 8 },
        _ => Unknown,
    }
}

fn standard_element_type_from_type_char(type_char: u8) -> ElementType {
    use self::ElementType::*;
    match type_char {
        b'c' | b'B' => UnsignedInteger { bytes: 1 },
        b'b' => SignedInteger { bytes: 1 },
        b'?' => Bool,
        b'h' => SignedInteger { bytes: 2 },
        b'H' => UnsignedInteger { bytes: 2 },
        b'i' | b'l' => SignedInteger { bytes: 4 },
        b'I' | b'L' => UnsignedInteger { bytes: 4 },
        b'q' => SignedInteger { bytes: 8 },
        b'Q' => UnsignedInteger { bytes: 8 },
        b'e' => Float { bytes: 2 },
        b'f' => Float { bytes: 4 },
        b'd' => Float { bytes: 8 },
        _ => Unknown,
    }
}

#[cfg(target_endian = "little")]
fn is_matching_endian(c: u8) -> bool {
    c == b'@' || c == b'=' || c == b'>'
}

#[cfg(target_endian = "big")]
fn is_matching_endian(c: u8) -> bool {
    c == b'@' || c == b'=' || c == b'>' || c == b'!'
}

/// Trait implemented for possible element types of `PyBuffer`.
///
/// # Safety
///
/// This trait must only be implemented for types which represent valid elements of Python buffers.
pub unsafe trait Element: Copy {
    /// Gets whether the element specified in the format string is potentially compatible.
    /// Alignment and size are checked separately from this function.
    fn is_compatible_format(format: &CStr) -> bool;
}

impl<'py, T: Element> FromPyObject<'py> for PyBuffer<T> {
    fn extract_bound(obj: &Bound<'_, PyAny>) -> PyResult<PyBuffer<T>> {
        Self::get_bound(obj)
    }
}

impl<T: Element> PyBuffer<T> {
    /// Deprecated form of [`PyBuffer::get_bound`]
    #[cfg(feature = "gil-refs")]
    #[deprecated(
        since = "0.21.0",
        note = "`PyBuffer::get` will be replaced by `PyBuffer::get_bound` in a future PyO3 version"
    )]
    pub fn get(obj: &PyAny) -> PyResult<PyBuffer<T>> {
        Self::get_bound(&obj.as_borrowed())
    }

    /// Gets the underlying buffer from the specified python object.
    pub fn get_bound(obj: &Bound<'_, PyAny>) -> PyResult<PyBuffer<T>> {
        // TODO: use nightly API Box::new_uninit() once stable
        let mut buf = Box::new(mem::MaybeUninit::uninit());
        let buf: Box<ffi::Py_buffer> = {
            err::error_on_minusone(obj.py(), unsafe {
                ffi::PyObject_GetBuffer(obj.as_ptr(), buf.as_mut_ptr(), ffi::PyBUF_FULL_RO)
            })?;
            // Safety: buf is initialized by PyObject_GetBuffer.
            // TODO: use nightly API Box::assume_init() once stable
            unsafe { mem::transmute(buf) }
        };
        // Create PyBuffer immediately so that if validation checks fail, the PyBuffer::drop code
        // will call PyBuffer_Release (thus avoiding any leaks).
        let buf = PyBuffer(Pin::from(buf), PhantomData);

        if buf.0.shape.is_null() {
            Err(PyBufferError::new_err("shape is null"))
        } else if buf.0.strides.is_null() {
            Err(PyBufferError::new_err("strides is null"))
        } else if mem::size_of::<T>() != buf.item_size() || !T::is_compatible_format(buf.format()) {
            Err(PyBufferError::new_err(format!(
                "buffer contents are not compatible with {}",
                std::any::type_name::<T>()
            )))
        } else if buf.0.buf.align_offset(mem::align_of::<T>()) != 0 {
            Err(PyBufferError::new_err(format!(
                "buffer contents are insufficiently aligned for {}",
                std::any::type_name::<T>()
            )))
        } else {
            Ok(buf)
        }
    }

    /// Gets the pointer to the start of the buffer memory.
    ///
    /// Warning: the buffer memory might be mutated by other Python functions,
    /// and thus may only be accessed while the GIL is held.
    #[inline]
    pub fn buf_ptr(&self) -> *mut raw::c_void {
        self.0.buf
    }

    /// Gets a pointer to the specified item.
    ///
    /// If `indices.len() < self.dimensions()`, returns the start address of the sub-array at the specified dimension.
    pub fn get_ptr(&self, indices: &[usize]) -> *mut raw::c_void {
        let shape = &self.shape()[..indices.len()];
        for i in 0..indices.len() {
            assert!(indices[i] < shape[i]);
        }
        unsafe {
            ffi::PyBuffer_GetPointer(
                #[cfg(Py_3_11)]
                &*self.0,
                #[cfg(not(Py_3_11))]
                {
                    &*self.0 as *const ffi::Py_buffer as *mut ffi::Py_buffer
                },
                #[cfg(Py_3_11)]
                {
                    indices.as_ptr().cast()
                },
                #[cfg(not(Py_3_11))]
                {
                    indices.as_ptr() as *mut ffi::Py_ssize_t
                },
            )
        }
    }

    /// Gets whether the underlying buffer is read-only.
    #[inline]
    pub fn readonly(&self) -> bool {
        self.0.readonly != 0
    }

    /// Gets the size of a single element, in bytes.
    /// Important exception: when requesting an unformatted buffer, item_size still has the value
    #[inline]
    pub fn item_size(&self) -> usize {
        self.0.itemsize as usize
    }

    /// Gets the total number of items.
    #[inline]
    pub fn item_count(&self) -> usize {
        (self.0.len as usize) / (self.0.itemsize as usize)
    }

    /// `item_size() * item_count()`.
    /// For contiguous arrays, this is the length of the underlying memory block.
    /// For non-contiguous arrays, it is the length that the logical structure would have if it were copied to a contiguous representation.
    #[inline]
    pub fn len_bytes(&self) -> usize {
        self.0.len as usize
    }

    /// Gets the number of dimensions.
    ///
    /// May be 0 to indicate a single scalar value.
    #[inline]
    pub fn dimensions(&self) -> usize {
        self.0.ndim as usize
    }

    /// Returns an array of length `dimensions`. `shape()[i]` is the length of the array in dimension number `i`.
    ///
    /// May return None for single-dimensional arrays or scalar values (`dimensions() <= 1`);
    /// You can call `item_count()` to get the length of the single dimension.
    ///
    /// Despite Python using an array of signed integers, the values are guaranteed to be non-negative.
    /// However, dimensions of length 0 are possible and might need special attention.
    #[inline]
    pub fn shape(&self) -> &[usize] {
        unsafe { slice::from_raw_parts(self.0.shape.cast(), self.0.ndim as usize) }
    }

    /// Returns an array that holds, for each dimension, the number of bytes to skip to get to the next element in the dimension.
    ///
    /// Stride values can be any integer. For regular arrays, strides are usually positive,
    /// but a consumer MUST be able to handle the case `strides[n] <= 0`.
    #[inline]
    pub fn strides(&self) -> &[isize] {
        unsafe { slice::from_raw_parts(self.0.strides, self.0.ndim as usize) }
    }

    /// An array of length ndim.
    /// If `suboffsets[n] >= 0`, the values stored along the nth dimension are pointers and the suboffset value dictates how many bytes to add to each pointer after de-referencing.
    /// A suboffset value that is negative indicates that no de-referencing should occur (striding in a contiguous memory block).
    ///
    /// If all suboffsets are negative (i.e. no de-referencing is needed), then this field must be NULL (the default value).
    #[inline]
    pub fn suboffsets(&self) -> Option<&[isize]> {
        unsafe {
            if self.0.suboffsets.is_null() {
                None
            } else {
                Some(slice::from_raw_parts(
                    self.0.suboffsets,
                    self.0.ndim as usize,
                ))
            }
        }
    }

    /// A NUL terminated string in struct module style syntax describing the contents of a single item.
    #[inline]
    pub fn format(&self) -> &CStr {
        if self.0.format.is_null() {
            ffi::c_str!("B")
        } else {
            unsafe { CStr::from_ptr(self.0.format) }
        }
    }

    /// Gets whether the buffer is contiguous in C-style order (last index varies fastest when visiting items in order of memory address).
    #[inline]
    pub fn is_c_contiguous(&self) -> bool {
        unsafe { ffi::PyBuffer_IsContiguous(&*self.0, b'C' as std::os::raw::c_char) != 0 }
    }

    /// Gets whether the buffer is contiguous in Fortran-style order (first index varies fastest when visiting items in order of memory address).
    #[inline]
    pub fn is_fortran_contiguous(&self) -> bool {
        unsafe { ffi::PyBuffer_IsContiguous(&*self.0, b'F' as std::os::raw::c_char) != 0 }
    }

    /// Gets the buffer memory as a slice.
    ///
    /// This function succeeds if:
    /// * the buffer format is compatible with `T`
    /// * alignment and size of buffer elements is matching the expectations for type `T`
    /// * the buffer is C-style contiguous
    ///
    /// The returned slice uses type `Cell<T>` because it's theoretically possible for any call into the Python runtime
    /// to modify the values in the slice.
    pub fn as_slice<'a>(&'a self, _py: Python<'a>) -> Option<&'a [ReadOnlyCell<T>]> {
        if self.is_c_contiguous() {
            unsafe {
                Some(slice::from_raw_parts(
                    self.0.buf as *mut ReadOnlyCell<T>,
                    self.item_count(),
                ))
            }
        } else {
            None
        }
    }

    /// Gets the buffer memory as a slice.
    ///
    /// This function succeeds if:
    /// * the buffer is not read-only
    /// * the buffer format is compatible with `T`
    /// * alignment and size of buffer elements is matching the expectations for type `T`
    /// * the buffer is C-style contiguous
    ///
    /// The returned slice uses type `Cell<T>` because it's theoretically possible for any call into the Python runtime
    /// to modify the values in the slice.
    pub fn as_mut_slice<'a>(&'a self, _py: Python<'a>) -> Option<&'a [cell::Cell<T>]> {
        if !self.readonly() && self.is_c_contiguous() {
            unsafe {
                Some(slice::from_raw_parts(
                    self.0.buf as *mut cell::Cell<T>,
                    self.item_count(),
                ))
            }
        } else {
            None
        }
    }

    /// Gets the buffer memory as a slice.
    ///
    /// This function succeeds if:
    /// * the buffer format is compatible with `T`
    /// * alignment and size of buffer elements is matching the expectations for type `T`
    /// * the buffer is Fortran-style contiguous
    ///
    /// The returned slice uses type `Cell<T>` because it's theoretically possible for any call into the Python runtime
    /// to modify the values in the slice.
    pub fn as_fortran_slice<'a>(&'a self, _py: Python<'a>) -> Option<&'a [ReadOnlyCell<T>]> {
        if mem::size_of::<T>() == self.item_size() && self.is_fortran_contiguous() {
            unsafe {
                Some(slice::from_raw_parts(
                    self.0.buf as *mut ReadOnlyCell<T>,
                    self.item_count(),
                ))
            }
        } else {
            None
        }
    }

    /// Gets the buffer memory as a slice.
    ///
    /// This function succeeds if:
    /// * the buffer is not read-only
    /// * the buffer format is compatible with `T`
    /// * alignment and size of buffer elements is matching the expectations for type `T`
    /// * the buffer is Fortran-style contiguous
    ///
    /// The returned slice uses type `Cell<T>` because it's theoretically possible for any call into the Python runtime
    /// to modify the values in the slice.
    pub fn as_fortran_mut_slice<'a>(&'a self, _py: Python<'a>) -> Option<&'a [cell::Cell<T>]> {
        if !self.readonly() && self.is_fortran_contiguous() {
            unsafe {
                Some(slice::from_raw_parts(
                    self.0.buf as *mut cell::Cell<T>,
                    self.item_count(),
                ))
            }
        } else {
            None
        }
    }

    /// Copies the buffer elements to the specified slice.
    /// If the buffer is multi-dimensional, the elements are written in C-style order.
    ///
    ///  * Fails if the slice does not have the correct length (`buf.item_count()`).
    ///  * Fails if the buffer format is not compatible with type `T`.
    ///
    /// To check whether the buffer format is compatible before calling this method,
    /// you can use `<T as buffer::Element>::is_compatible_format(buf.format())`.
    /// Alternatively, `match buffer::ElementType::from_format(buf.format())`.
    pub fn copy_to_slice(&self, py: Python<'_>, target: &mut [T]) -> PyResult<()> {
        self._copy_to_slice(py, target, b'C')
    }

    /// Copies the buffer elements to the specified slice.
    /// If the buffer is multi-dimensional, the elements are written in Fortran-style order.
    ///
    ///  * Fails if the slice does not have the correct length (`buf.item_count()`).
    ///  * Fails if the buffer format is not compatible with type `T`.
    ///
    /// To check whether the buffer format is compatible before calling this method,
    /// you can use `<T as buffer::Element>::is_compatible_format(buf.format())`.
    /// Alternatively, `match buffer::ElementType::from_format(buf.format())`.
    pub fn copy_to_fortran_slice(&self, py: Python<'_>, target: &mut [T]) -> PyResult<()> {
        self._copy_to_slice(py, target, b'F')
    }

    fn _copy_to_slice(&self, py: Python<'_>, target: &mut [T], fort: u8) -> PyResult<()> {
        if mem::size_of_val(target) != self.len_bytes() {
            return Err(PyBufferError::new_err(format!(
                "slice to copy to (of length {}) does not match buffer length of {}",
                target.len(),
                self.item_count()
            )));
        }

        err::error_on_minusone(py, unsafe {
            ffi::PyBuffer_ToContiguous(
                target.as_mut_ptr().cast(),
                #[cfg(Py_3_11)]
                &*self.0,
                #[cfg(not(Py_3_11))]
                {
                    &*self.0 as *const ffi::Py_buffer as *mut ffi::Py_buffer
                },
                self.0.len,
                fort as std::os::raw::c_char,
            )
        })
    }

    /// Copies the buffer elements to a newly allocated vector.
    /// If the buffer is multi-dimensional, the elements are written in C-style order.
    ///
    /// Fails if the buffer format is not compatible with type `T`.
    pub fn to_vec(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<Vec<T>> {
        self._to_vec(py, b'C')
    }

    /// Copies the buffer elements to a newly allocated vector.
    /// If the buffer is multi-dimensional, the elements are written in Fortran-style order.
    ///
    /// Fails if the buffer format is not compatible with type `T`.
    pub fn to_fortran_vec(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<Vec<T>> {
        self._to_vec(py, b'F')
    }

    fn _to_vec(&self, py: Python<'_>, fort: u8) -> PyResult<Vec<T>> {
        let item_count = self.item_count();
        let mut vec: Vec<T> = Vec::with_capacity(item_count);

        // Copy the buffer into the uninitialized space in the vector.
        // Due to T:Copy, we don't need to be concerned with Drop impls.
        err::error_on_minusone(py, unsafe {
            ffi::PyBuffer_ToContiguous(
                vec.as_ptr() as *mut raw::c_void,
                #[cfg(Py_3_11)]
                &*self.0,
                #[cfg(not(Py_3_11))]
                {
                    &*self.0 as *const ffi::Py_buffer as *mut ffi::Py_buffer
                },
                self.0.len,
                fort as std::os::raw::c_char,
            )
        })?;
        // set vector length to mark the now-initialized space as usable
        unsafe { vec.set_len(item_count) };
        Ok(vec)
    }

    /// Copies the specified slice into the buffer.
    /// If the buffer is multi-dimensional, the elements in the slice are expected to be in C-style order.
    ///
    ///  * Fails if the buffer is read-only.
    ///  * Fails if the slice does not have the correct length (`buf.item_count()`).
    ///  * Fails if the buffer format is not compatible with type `T`.
    ///
    /// To check whether the buffer format is compatible before calling this method,
    /// use `<T as buffer::Element>::is_compatible_format(buf.format())`.
    /// Alternatively, `match buffer::ElementType::from_format(buf.format())`.
    pub fn copy_from_slice(&self, py: Python<'_>, source: &[T]) -> PyResult<()> {
        self._copy_from_slice(py, source, b'C')
    }

    /// Copies the specified slice into the buffer.
    /// If the buffer is multi-dimensional, the elements in the slice are expected to be in Fortran-style order.
    ///
    ///  * Fails if the buffer is read-only.
    ///  * Fails if the slice does not have the correct length (`buf.item_count()`).
    ///  * Fails if the buffer format is not compatible with type `T`.
    ///
    /// To check whether the buffer format is compatible before calling this method,
    /// use `<T as buffer::Element>::is_compatible_format(buf.format())`.
    /// Alternatively, `match buffer::ElementType::from_format(buf.format())`.
    pub fn copy_from_fortran_slice(&self, py: Python<'_>, source: &[T]) -> PyResult<()> {
        self._copy_from_slice(py, source, b'F')
    }

    fn _copy_from_slice(&self, py: Python<'_>, source: &[T], fort: u8) -> PyResult<()> {
        if self.readonly() {
            return Err(PyBufferError::new_err("cannot write to read-only buffer"));
        } else if mem::size_of_val(source) != self.len_bytes() {
            return Err(PyBufferError::new_err(format!(
                "slice to copy from (of length {}) does not match buffer length of {}",
                source.len(),
                self.item_count()
            )));
        }

        err::error_on_minusone(py, unsafe {
            ffi::PyBuffer_FromContiguous(
                #[cfg(Py_3_11)]
                &*self.0,
                #[cfg(not(Py_3_11))]
                {
                    &*self.0 as *const ffi::Py_buffer as *mut ffi::Py_buffer
                },
                #[cfg(Py_3_11)]
                {
                    source.as_ptr().cast()
                },
                #[cfg(not(Py_3_11))]
                {
                    source.as_ptr() as *mut raw::c_void
                },
                self.0.len,
                fort as std::os::raw::c_char,
            )
        })
    }

    /// Releases the buffer object, freeing the reference to the Python object
    /// which owns the buffer.
    ///
    /// This will automatically be called on drop.
    pub fn release(self, _py: Python<'_>) {
        // First move self into a ManuallyDrop, so that PyBuffer::drop will
        // never be called. (It would acquire the GIL and call PyBuffer_Release
        // again.)
        let mut mdself = mem::ManuallyDrop::new(self);
        unsafe {
            // Next, make the actual PyBuffer_Release call.
            ffi::PyBuffer_Release(&mut *mdself.0);

            // Finally, drop the contained Pin<Box<_>> in place, to free the
            // Box memory.
            let inner: *mut Pin<Box<ffi::Py_buffer>> = &mut mdself.0;
            ptr::drop_in_place(inner);
        }
    }
}

impl<T> Drop for PyBuffer<T> {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        Python::with_gil(|_| unsafe { ffi::PyBuffer_Release(&mut *self.0) });
    }
}

/// Like [std::cell::Cell], but only provides read-only access to the data.
///
/// `&ReadOnlyCell<T>` is basically a safe version of `*const T`:
///  The data cannot be modified through the reference, but other references may
///  be modifying the data.
#[repr(transparent)]
pub struct ReadOnlyCell<T: Element>(cell::UnsafeCell<T>);

impl<T: Element> ReadOnlyCell<T> {
    /// Returns a copy of the current value.
    #[inline]
    pub fn get(&self) -> T {
        unsafe { *self.0.get() }
    }

    /// Returns a pointer to the current value.
    #[inline]
    pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *const T {
        self.0.get()
    }
}

macro_rules! impl_element(
    ($t:ty, $f:ident) => {
        unsafe impl Element for $t {
            fn is_compatible_format(format: &CStr) -> bool {
                let slice = format.to_bytes();
                if slice.len() > 1 && !is_matching_endian(slice[0]) {
                    return false;
                }
                ElementType::from_format(format) == ElementType::$f { bytes: mem::size_of::<$t>() }
            }
        }
    }
);

impl_element!(u8, UnsignedInteger);
impl_element!(u16, UnsignedInteger);
impl_element!(u32, UnsignedInteger);
impl_element!(u64, UnsignedInteger);
impl_element!(usize, UnsignedInteger);
impl_element!(i8, SignedInteger);
impl_element!(i16, SignedInteger);
impl_element!(i32, SignedInteger);
impl_element!(i64, SignedInteger);
impl_element!(isize, SignedInteger);
impl_element!(f32, Float);
impl_element!(f64, Float);

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
    use super::PyBuffer;
    use crate::ffi;
    use crate::types::any::PyAnyMethods;
    use crate::Python;

    #[test]
    fn test_debug() {
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let bytes = py.eval_bound("b'abcde'", None, None).unwrap();
            let buffer: PyBuffer<u8> = PyBuffer::get_bound(&bytes).unwrap();
            let expected = format!(
                concat!(
                    "PyBuffer {{ buf: {:?}, obj: {:?}, ",
                    "len: 5, itemsize: 1, readonly: 1, ",
                    "ndim: 1, format: {:?}, shape: {:?}, ",
                    "strides: {:?}, suboffsets: {:?}, internal: {:?} }}",
                ),
                buffer.0.buf,
                buffer.0.obj,
                buffer.0.format,
                buffer.0.shape,
                buffer.0.strides,
                buffer.0.suboffsets,
                buffer.0.internal
            );
            let debug_repr = format!("{:?}", buffer);
            assert_eq!(debug_repr, expected);
        });
    }

    #[test]
    fn test_element_type_from_format() {
        use super::ElementType;
        use super::ElementType::*;
        use std::mem::size_of;
        use std::os::raw;

        for (cstr, expected) in [
            // @ prefix goes to native_element_type_from_type_char
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@b"),
                SignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_schar>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@c"),
                UnsignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_char>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@b"),
                SignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_schar>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@B"),
                UnsignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_uchar>(),
                },
            ),
            (ffi::c_str!("@?"), Bool),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@h"),
                SignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_short>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@H"),
                UnsignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_ushort>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@i"),
                SignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_int>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@I"),
                UnsignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_uint>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@l"),
                SignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_long>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@L"),
                UnsignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_ulong>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@q"),
                SignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_longlong>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@Q"),
                UnsignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<raw::c_ulonglong>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@n"),
                SignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<libc::ssize_t>(),
                },
            ),
            (
                ffi::c_str!("@N"),
                UnsignedInteger {
                    bytes: size_of::<libc::size_t>(),
                },
            ),
            (ffi::c_str!("@e"), Float { bytes: 2 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("@f"), Float { bytes: 4 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("@d"), Float { bytes: 8 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("@z"), Unknown),
            // = prefix goes to standard_element_type_from_type_char
            (ffi::c_str!("=b"), SignedInteger { bytes: 1 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=c"), UnsignedInteger { bytes: 1 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=B"), UnsignedInteger { bytes: 1 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=?"), Bool),
            (ffi::c_str!("=h"), SignedInteger { bytes: 2 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=H"), UnsignedInteger { bytes: 2 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=l"), SignedInteger { bytes: 4 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=l"), SignedInteger { bytes: 4 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=I"), UnsignedInteger { bytes: 4 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=L"), UnsignedInteger { bytes: 4 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=q"), SignedInteger { bytes: 8 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=Q"), UnsignedInteger { bytes: 8 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=e"), Float { bytes: 2 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=f"), Float { bytes: 4 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=d"), Float { bytes: 8 }),
            (ffi::c_str!("=z"), Unknown),
            (ffi::c_str!("=0"), Unknown),
            // unknown prefix -> Unknown
            (ffi::c_str!(":b"), Unknown),
        ] {
            assert_eq!(
                ElementType::from_format(cstr),
                expected,
                "element from format &Cstr: {:?}",
                cstr,
            );
        }
    }

    #[test]
    fn test_compatible_size() {
        // for the cast in PyBuffer::shape()
        assert_eq!(
            std::mem::size_of::<ffi::Py_ssize_t>(),
            std::mem::size_of::<usize>()
        );
    }

    #[test]
    fn test_bytes_buffer() {
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let bytes = py.eval_bound("b'abcde'", None, None).unwrap();
            let buffer = PyBuffer::get_bound(&bytes).unwrap();
            assert_eq!(buffer.dimensions(), 1);
            assert_eq!(buffer.item_count(), 5);
            assert_eq!(buffer.format().to_str().unwrap(), "B");
            assert_eq!(buffer.shape(), [5]);
            // single-dimensional buffer is always contiguous
            assert!(buffer.is_c_contiguous());
            assert!(buffer.is_fortran_contiguous());

            let slice = buffer.as_slice(py).unwrap();
            assert_eq!(slice.len(), 5);
            assert_eq!(slice[0].get(), b'a');
            assert_eq!(slice[2].get(), b'c');

            assert_eq!(unsafe { *(buffer.get_ptr(&[1]) as *mut u8) }, b'b');

            assert!(buffer.as_mut_slice(py).is_none());

            assert!(buffer.copy_to_slice(py, &mut [0u8]).is_err());
            let mut arr = [0; 5];
            buffer.copy_to_slice(py, &mut arr).unwrap();
            assert_eq!(arr, b"abcde" as &[u8]);

            assert!(buffer.copy_from_slice(py, &[0u8; 5]).is_err());
            assert_eq!(buffer.to_vec(py).unwrap(), b"abcde");
        });
    }

    #[test]
    fn test_array_buffer() {
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let array = py
                .import_bound("array")
                .unwrap()
                .call_method("array", ("f", (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5)), None)
                .unwrap();
            let buffer = PyBuffer::get_bound(&array).unwrap();
            assert_eq!(buffer.dimensions(), 1);
            assert_eq!(buffer.item_count(), 4);
            assert_eq!(buffer.format().to_str().unwrap(), "f");
            assert_eq!(buffer.shape(), [4]);

            // array creates a 1D contiguious buffer, so it's both C and F contiguous.  This would
            // be more interesting if we can come up with a 2D buffer but I think it would need a
            // third-party lib or a custom class.

            // C-contiguous fns
            let slice = buffer.as_slice(py).unwrap();
            assert_eq!(slice.len(), 4);
            assert_eq!(slice[0].get(), 1.0);
            assert_eq!(slice[3].get(), 2.5);

            let mut_slice = buffer.as_mut_slice(py).unwrap();
            assert_eq!(mut_slice.len(), 4);
            assert_eq!(mut_slice[0].get(), 1.0);
            mut_slice[3].set(2.75);
            assert_eq!(slice[3].get(), 2.75);

            buffer
                .copy_from_slice(py, &[10.0f32, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0])
                .unwrap();
            assert_eq!(slice[2].get(), 12.0);

            assert_eq!(buffer.to_vec(py).unwrap(), [10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0]);

            // F-contiguous fns
            let buffer = PyBuffer::get_bound(&array).unwrap();
            let slice = buffer.as_fortran_slice(py).unwrap();
            assert_eq!(slice.len(), 4);
            assert_eq!(slice[1].get(), 11.0);

            let mut_slice = buffer.as_fortran_mut_slice(py).unwrap();
            assert_eq!(mut_slice.len(), 4);
            assert_eq!(mut_slice[2].get(), 12.0);
            mut_slice[3].set(2.75);
            assert_eq!(slice[3].get(), 2.75);

            buffer
                .copy_from_fortran_slice(py, &[10.0f32, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0])
                .unwrap();
            assert_eq!(slice[2].get(), 12.0);

            assert_eq!(buffer.to_fortran_vec(py).unwrap(), [10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0]);
        });
    }
}