The PyO3 user guide

Welcome to the PyO3 user guide! This book is a companion to PyO3's API docs. It contains examples and documentation to explain all of PyO3's use cases in detail.

Please choose from the chapters on the left to jump to individual topics, or continue below to start with PyO3's README.

PyO3

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Rust bindings for Python, including tools for creating native Python extension modules. Running and interacting with Python code from a Rust binary is also supported.

Usage

PyO3 supports the following software versions:

  • Python 3.7 and up (CPython and PyPy)
  • Rust 1.48 and up

You can use PyO3 to write a native Python module in Rust, or to embed Python in a Rust binary. The following sections explain each of these in turn.

Using Rust from Python

PyO3 can be used to generate a native Python module. The easiest way to try this out for the first time is to use maturin. maturin is a tool for building and publishing Rust-based Python packages with minimal configuration. The following steps install maturin, use it to generate and build a new Python package, and then launch Python to import and execute a function from the package.

First, follow the commands below to create a new directory containing a new Python virtualenv, and install maturin into the virtualenv using Python's package manager, pip:

# (replace string_sum with the desired package name)
$ mkdir string_sum
$ cd string_sum
$ python -m venv .env
$ source .env/bin/activate
$ pip install maturin

Still inside this string_sum directory, now run maturin init. This will generate the new package source. When given the choice of bindings to use, select pyo3 bindings:

$ maturin init
βœ” 🀷 What kind of bindings to use? Β· pyo3
  ✨ Done! New project created string_sum

The most important files generated by this command are Cargo.toml and lib.rs, which will look roughly like the following:

Cargo.toml

[package]
name = "string_sum"
version = "0.1.0"
edition = "2018"

[lib]
# The name of the native library. This is the name which will be used in Python to import the
# library (i.e. `import string_sum`). If you change this, you must also change the name of the
# `#[pymodule]` in `src/lib.rs`.
name = "string_sum"
# "cdylib" is necessary to produce a shared library for Python to import from.
#
# Downstream Rust code (including code in `bin/`, `examples/`, and `tests/`) will not be able
# to `use string_sum;` unless the "rlib" or "lib" crate type is also included, e.g.:
# crate-type = ["cdylib", "rlib"]
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

[dependencies]
pyo3 = { version = "0.16.5", features = ["extension-module"] }

src/lib.rs


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

/// Formats the sum of two numbers as string.
#[pyfunction]
fn sum_as_string(a: usize, b: usize) -> PyResult<String> {
    Ok((a + b).to_string())
}

/// A Python module implemented in Rust. The name of this function must match
/// the `lib.name` setting in the `Cargo.toml`, else Python will not be able to
/// import the module.
#[pymodule]
fn string_sum(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(sum_as_string, m)?)?;
    Ok(())
}
}

Finally, run maturin develop. This will build the package and install it into the Python virtualenv previously created and activated. The package is then ready to be used from python:

$ maturin develop
# lots of progress output as maturin runs the compilation...
$ python
>>> import string_sum
>>> string_sum.sum_as_string(5, 20)
'25'

To make changes to the package, just edit the Rust source code and then re-run maturin develop to recompile.

To run this all as a single copy-and-paste, use the bash script below (replace string_sum in the first command with the desired package name):

mkdir string_sum && cd "$_"
python -m venv .env
source .env/bin/activate
pip install maturin
maturin init --bindings pyo3
maturin develop

As well as with maturin, it is possible to build using setuptools-rust or manually. Both offer more flexibility than maturin but require more configuration to get started.

Using Python from Rust

To embed Python into a Rust binary, you need to ensure that your Python installation contains a shared library. The following steps demonstrate how to ensure this (for Ubuntu), and then give some example code which runs an embedded Python interpreter.

To install the Python shared library on Ubuntu:

sudo apt install python3-dev

Start a new project with cargo new and add pyo3 to the Cargo.toml like this:

[dependencies.pyo3]
version = "0.16.5"
features = ["auto-initialize"]

Example program displaying the value of sys.version and the current user name:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::IntoPyDict;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let sys = py.import("sys")?;
        let version: String = sys.getattr("version")?.extract()?;

        let locals = [("os", py.import("os")?)].into_py_dict(py);
        let code = "os.getenv('USER') or os.getenv('USERNAME') or 'Unknown'";
        let user: String = py.eval(code, None, Some(&locals))?.extract()?;

        println!("Hello {}, I'm Python {}", user, version);
        Ok(())
    })
}

The guide has a section with lots of examples about this topic.

Tools and libraries

  • maturin Build and publish crates with pyo3, rust-cpython or cffi bindings as well as rust binaries as python packages
  • setuptools-rust Setuptools plugin for Rust support.
  • pyo3-built Simple macro to expose metadata obtained with the built crate as a PyDict
  • rust-numpy Rust binding of NumPy C-API
  • dict-derive Derive FromPyObject to automatically transform Python dicts into Rust structs
  • pyo3-log Bridge from Rust to Python logging
  • pythonize Serde serializer for converting Rust objects to JSON-compatible Python objects
  • pyo3-asyncio Utilities for working with Python's Asyncio library and async functions
  • rustimport Directly import Rust files or crates from Python, without manual compilation step. Provides pyo3 integration by default and generates pyo3 binding code automatically.

Examples

  • hyperjson A hyper-fast Python module for reading/writing JSON data using Rust's serde-json
  • html-py-ever Using html5ever through kuchiki to speed up html parsing and css-selecting.
  • point-process High level API for pointprocesses as a Python library
  • autopy A simple, cross-platform GUI automation library for Python and Rust.
    • Contains an example of building wheels on TravisCI and appveyor using cibuildwheel
  • orjson Fast Python JSON library
  • inline-python Inline Python code directly in your Rust code
  • Rogue-Gym Customizable rogue-like game for AI experiments
    • Contains an example of building wheels on Azure Pipelines
  • fastuuid Python bindings to Rust's UUID library
  • wasmer-python Python library to run WebAssembly binaries
  • mocpy Astronomical Python library offering data structures for describing any arbitrary coverage regions on the unit sphere
  • tokenizers Python bindings to the Hugging Face tokenizers (NLP) written in Rust
  • pyre Fast Python HTTP server written in Rust
  • jsonschema-rs Fast JSON Schema validation library
  • css-inline CSS inlining for Python implemented in Rust
  • cryptography Python cryptography library with some functionality in Rust
  • polaroid Hyper Fast and safe image manipulation library for Python written in Rust
  • ormsgpack Fast Python msgpack library
  • bed-reader Read and write the PLINK BED format, simply and efficiently
    • Shows Rayon/ndarray::parallel (including capturing errors, controlling thread num), Python types to Rust generics, Github Actions
  • pyheck Fast case conversion library, built by wrapping heck
    • Quite easy to follow as there's not much code.
  • polars Fast multi-threaded DataFrame library in Rust | Python | Node.js
  • rust-python-coverage Example PyO3 project with automated test coverage for Rust and Python
  • forust A lightweight gradient boosted decision tree library written in Rust.

Articles and other media

Contributing

Everyone is welcomed to contribute to PyO3! There are many ways to support the project, such as:

  • help PyO3 users with issues on GitHub and Gitter
  • improve documentation
  • write features and bugfixes
  • publish blogs and examples of how to use PyO3

Our contributing notes and architecture guide have more resources if you wish to volunteer time for PyO3 and are searching where to start.

If you don't have time to contribute yourself but still wish to support the project's future success, some of our maintainers have GitHub sponsorship pages:

License

PyO3 is licensed under the Apache-2.0 license. Python is licensed under the Python License.

Python Modules

You can create a module using #[pymodule]:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyfunction]
fn double(x: usize) -> usize {
    x * 2
}

/// This module is implemented in Rust.
#[pymodule]
fn my_extension(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(double, m)?)?;
    Ok(())
}
}

The #[pymodule] procedural macro takes care of exporting the initialization function of your module to Python.

The module's name defaults to the name of the Rust function. You can override the module name by using #[pyo3(name = "custom_name")]:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyfunction]
fn double(x: usize) -> usize {
    x * 2
}

#[pymodule]
#[pyo3(name = "custom_name")]
fn my_extension(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(double, m)?)?;
    Ok(())
}
}

The name of the module must match the name of the .so or .pyd file. Otherwise, you will get an import error in Python with the following message: ImportError: dynamic module does not define module export function (PyInit_name_of_your_module)

To import the module, either:

Documentation

The Rust doc comments of the module initialization function will be applied automatically as the Python docstring of your module.

For example, building off of the above code, this will print This module is implemented in Rust.:

import my_extension

print(my_extension.__doc__)

Python submodules

You can create a module hierarchy within a single extension module by using PyModule.add_submodule(). For example, you could define the modules parent_module and parent_module.child_module.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pymodule]
fn parent_module(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    register_child_module(py, m)?;
    Ok(())
}

fn register_child_module(py: Python<'_>, parent_module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    let child_module = PyModule::new(py, "child_module")?;
    child_module.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(func, child_module)?)?;
    parent_module.add_submodule(child_module)?;
    Ok(())
}

#[pyfunction]
fn func() -> String {
    "func".to_string()
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
   use pyo3::wrap_pymodule;
   use pyo3::types::IntoPyDict;
   let parent_module = wrap_pymodule!(parent_module)(py);
   let ctx = [("parent_module", parent_module)].into_py_dict(py);

   py.run("assert parent_module.child_module.func() == 'func'", None, Some(&ctx)).unwrap();
})
}

Note that this does not define a package, so this won’t allow Python code to directly import submodules by using from parent_module import child_module. For more information, see #759 and #1517.

It is not necessary to add #[pymodule] on nested modules, which is only required on the top-level module.

Python Functions

The #[pyfunction] attribute is used to define a Python function from a Rust function. Once defined, the function needs to be added to a module using the wrap_pyfunction! macro.

The following example defines a function called double in a Python module called my_extension:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyfunction]
fn double(x: usize) -> usize {
    x * 2
}

#[pymodule]
fn my_extension(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(double, m)?)?;
    Ok(())
}
}

This chapter of the guide explains full usage of the #[pyfunction] attribute. The following topics are covered:

Function options

The #[pyo3] attribute can be used to modify properties of the generated Python function. It can take any combination of the following options:

  • #[pyo3(name = "...")]

    Overrides the name exposed to Python.

    In the following example, the Rust function no_args_py will be added to the Python module module_with_functions as the Python function no_args:

    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    
    #[pyfunction]
    #[pyo3(name = "no_args")]
    fn no_args_py() -> usize { 42 }
    
    #[pymodule]
    fn module_with_functions(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
        m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(no_args_py, m)?)?;
        Ok(())
    }
    
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let m = pyo3::wrap_pymodule!(module_with_functions)(py);
        assert!(m.getattr(py, "no_args").is_ok());
        assert!(m.getattr(py, "no_args_py").is_err());
    });
    }
    
  • #[pyo3(text_signature = "...")]

    Sets the function signature visible in Python tooling (such as via inspect.signature).

    The example below creates a function add which has a signature describing two positional-only arguments a and b.

    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    
    /// This function adds two unsigned 64-bit integers.
    #[pyfunction]
    #[pyo3(text_signature = "(a, b, /)")]
    fn add(a: u64, b: u64) -> u64 {
        a + b
    }
    
    fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let fun = pyo3::wrap_pyfunction!(add, py)?;
    
            let doc: String = fun.getattr("__doc__")?.extract()?;
            assert_eq!(doc, "This function adds two unsigned 64-bit integers.");
    
            let inspect = PyModule::import(py, "inspect")?.getattr("signature")?;
            let sig: String = inspect
                .call1((fun,))?
                .call_method0("__str__")?
                .extract()?;
            assert_eq!(sig, "(a, b, /)");
    
            Ok(())
        })
    }
    
  • #[pyo3(pass_module)]

    Set this option to make PyO3 pass the containing module as the first argument to the function. It is then possible to use the module in the function body. The first argument must be of type &PyModule.

    The following example creates a function pyfunction_with_module which returns the containing module's name (i.e. module_with_fn):

    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    
    #[pyfunction]
    #[pyo3(pass_module)]
    fn pyfunction_with_module(module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<&str> {
        module.name()
    }
    
    #[pymodule]
    fn module_with_fn(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
        m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(pyfunction_with_module, m)?)
    }
    }
    

Argument parsing

The #[pyfunction] attribute supports specifying details of argument parsing. The details are given in the section "Method arguments" of the Classes chapter. Here is an example for a function that accepts arbitrary keyword arguments (**kwargs in Python syntax) and returns the number that was passed:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

#[pyfunction(kwds="**")]
fn num_kwds(kwds: Option<&PyDict>) -> usize {
    kwds.map_or(0, |dict| dict.len())
}

#[pymodule]
fn module_with_functions(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(num_kwds, m)?).unwrap();
    Ok(())
}
}

Per-argument options

The #[pyo3] attribute can be used on individual arguments to modify properties of them in the generated function. It can take any combination of the following options:

  • #[pyo3(from_py_with = "...")]

    Set this on an option to specify a custom function to convert the function argument from Python to the desired Rust type, instead of using the default FromPyObject extraction. The function signature must be fn(&PyAny) -> PyResult<T> where T is the Rust type of the argument.

    The following example uses from_py_with to convert the input Python object to its length:

    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    
    fn get_length(obj: &PyAny) -> PyResult<usize> {
        let length = obj.len()?;
        Ok(length)
    }
    
    #[pyfunction]
    fn object_length(
        #[pyo3(from_py_with = "get_length")] argument: usize
    ) -> usize {
        argument
    }
    
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let f = pyo3::wrap_pyfunction!(object_length)(py).unwrap();
        assert_eq!(f.call1((vec![1, 2, 3],)).unwrap().extract::<usize>().unwrap(), 3);
    });
    }
    

Advanced function patterns

Making the function signature available to Python (old method)

Alternatively, simply make sure the first line of your docstring is formatted like in the following example. Please note that the newline after the -- is mandatory. The / signifies the end of positional-only arguments.

#[pyo3(text_signature)] should be preferred, since it will override automatically generated signatures when those are added in a future version of PyO3.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
use pyo3::prelude::*;

/// add(a, b, /)
/// --
///
/// This function adds two unsigned 64-bit integers.
#[pyfunction]
fn add(a: u64, b: u64) -> u64 {
    a + b
}

// a function with a signature but without docs. Both blank lines after the `--` are mandatory.

/// sub(a, b, /)
/// --
///
///
#[pyfunction]
fn sub(a: u64, b: u64) -> u64 {
    a - b
}
}

When annotated like this, signatures are also correctly displayed in IPython.

>>> pyo3_test.add?
Signature: pyo3_test.add(a, b, /)
Docstring: This function adds two unsigned 64-bit integers.
Type:      builtin_function_or_method

Closures

Currently, there are no conversions between Fns in Rust and callables in Python. This would definitely be possible and very useful, so contributions are welcome. In the meantime, you can do the following:

Calling Python functions in Rust

You can pass Python def'd functions and built-in functions to Rust functions PyFunction corresponds to regular Python functions while PyCFunction describes built-ins such as repr().

You can also use PyAny::is_callable to check if you have a callable object. is_callable will return true for functions (including lambdas), methods and objects with a __call__ method. You can call the object with PyAny::call with the args as first parameter and the kwargs (or None) as second parameter. There are also PyAny::call0 with no args and PyAny::call1 with only positional args.

Calling Rust functions in Python

If you have a static function, you can expose it with #[pyfunction] and use wrap_pyfunction! to get the corresponding PyCFunction. For dynamic functions, e.g. lambdas and functions that were passed as arguments, you must put them in some kind of owned container, e.g. a Box. (A long-term solution will be a special container similar to wasm-bindgen's Closure). You can then use a #[pyclass] struct with that container as a field as a way to pass the function over the FFI barrier. You can even make that class callable with __call__ so it looks like a function in Python code.

Accessing the FFI functions

In order to make Rust functions callable from Python, PyO3 generates an extern "C" function whose exact signature depends on the Rust signature. (PyO3 chooses the optimal Python argument passing convention.) It then embeds the call to the Rust function inside this FFI-wrapper function. This wrapper handles extraction of the regular arguments and the keyword arguments from the input PyObjects.

The wrap_pyfunction macro can be used to directly get a PyCFunction given a #[pyfunction] and a PyModule: wrap_pyfunction!(rust_fun, module).

#[pyfn] shorthand

There is a shorthand to #[pyfunction] and wrap_pymodule!: the function can be placed inside the module definition and annotated with #[pyfn]. To simplify PyO3, it is expected that #[pyfn] may be removed in a future release (See #694).

An example of #[pyfn] is below:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pymodule]
fn my_extension(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {

    #[pyfn(m)]
    fn double(x: usize) -> usize {
        x * 2
    }

    Ok(())
}
}

#[pyfn(m)] is just syntactic sugar for #[pyfunction], and takes all the same options documented in the rest of this chapter. The code above is expanded to the following:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pymodule]
fn my_extension(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {

    #[pyfunction]
    fn double(x: usize) -> usize {
        x * 2
    }

    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(double, m)?)?;
    Ok(())
}
}

Python Classes

PyO3 exposes a group of attributes powered by Rust's proc macro system for defining Python classes as Rust structs.

The main attribute is #[pyclass], which is placed upon a Rust struct or a fieldless enum (a.k.a. C-like enum) to generate a Python type for it. They will usually also have one #[pymethods]-annotated impl block for the struct, which is used to define Python methods and constants for the generated Python type. (If the multiple-pymethods feature is enabled each #[pyclass] is allowed to have multiple #[pymethods] blocks.) #[pymethods] may also have implementations for Python magic methods such as __str__.

This chapter will discuss the functionality and configuration these attributes offer. Below is a list of links to the relevant section of this chapter for each:

Defining a new class

To define a custom Python class, add the #[pyclass] attribute to a Rust struct or a fieldless enum.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Integer{
    inner: i32
}

// A "tuple" struct
#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

// PyO3 supports custom discriminants in enums
#[pyclass]
enum HttpResponse {
    Ok = 200,
    NotFound = 404,
    Teapot = 418,
    // ...
}

#[pyclass]
enum MyEnum {
    Variant,
    OtherVariant = 30, // PyO3 supports custom discriminants.
}
}

Because Python objects are freely shared between threads by the Python interpreter, all types annotated with #[pyclass] must implement Send (unless annotated with #[pyclass(unsendable)]).

The above example generates implementations for PyTypeInfo and PyClass for MyClass and MyEnum. To see these generated implementations, refer to the implementation details at the end of this chapter.

Constructor

By default it is not possible to create an instance of a custom class from Python code. To declare a constructor, you need to define a method and annotate it with the #[new] attribute. Only Python's __new__ method can be specified, __init__ is not available.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    #[new]
    fn new(value: i32) -> Self {
        Number(value)
    }
}
}

Alternatively, if your new method may fail you can return PyResult<Self>.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::exceptions::PyValueError;
#[pyclass]
struct Nonzero(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Nonzero {
    #[new]
    fn py_new(value: i32) -> PyResult<Self> {
        if value == 0 {
            Err(PyValueError::new_err("cannot be zero"))
        } else {
            Ok(Nonzero(value))
        }
    }
}
}

As you can see, the Rust method name is not important here; this way you can still use new() for a Rust-level constructor.

If no method marked with #[new] is declared, object instances can only be created from Rust, but not from Python.

For arguments, see the Method arguments section below.

Adding the class to a module

The next step is to create the module initializer and add our class to it


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_class::<Number>()?;
    Ok(())
}
}

PyCell and interior mutability

You sometimes need to convert your pyclass into a Python object and access it from Rust code (e.g., for testing it). PyCell is the primary interface for that.

PyCell<T: PyClass> is always allocated in the Python heap, so Rust doesn't have ownership of it. In other words, Rust code can only extract a &PyCell<T>, not a PyCell<T>.

Thus, to mutate data behind &PyCell safely, PyO3 employs the Interior Mutability Pattern like RefCell.

Users who are familiar with RefCell can use PyCell just like RefCell.

For users who are not very familiar with RefCell, here is a reminder of Rust's rules of borrowing:

  • At any given time, you can have either (but not both of) one mutable reference or any number of immutable references.
  • References must always be valid.

PyCell, like RefCell, ensures these borrowing rules by tracking references at runtime.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    #[pyo3(get)]
    num: i32,
}
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let obj = PyCell::new(py, MyClass { num: 3}).unwrap();
    {
        let obj_ref = obj.borrow(); // Get PyRef
        assert_eq!(obj_ref.num, 3);
        // You cannot get PyRefMut unless all PyRefs are dropped
        assert!(obj.try_borrow_mut().is_err());
    }
    {
        let mut obj_mut = obj.borrow_mut(); // Get PyRefMut
        obj_mut.num = 5;
        // You cannot get any other refs until the PyRefMut is dropped
        assert!(obj.try_borrow().is_err());
        assert!(obj.try_borrow_mut().is_err());
    }

    // You can convert `&PyCell` to a Python object
    pyo3::py_run!(py, obj, "assert obj.num == 5");
});
}

&PyCell<T> is bounded by the same lifetime as a GILGuard. To make the object longer lived (for example, to store it in a struct on the Rust side), you can use Py<T>, which stores an object longer than the GIL lifetime, and therefore needs a Python<'_> token to access.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    num: i32,
}

fn return_myclass() -> Py<MyClass> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| Py::new(py, MyClass { num: 1 }).unwrap())
}

let obj = return_myclass();

Python::with_gil(|py|{
    let cell = obj.as_ref(py); // Py<MyClass>::as_ref returns &PyCell<MyClass>
    let obj_ref = cell.borrow(); // Get PyRef<T>
    assert_eq!(obj_ref.num, 1);
});
}

Customizing the class

#[pyclass] can be used with the following parameters:

ParameterDescription
crate = "some::path"Path to import the pyo3 crate, if it's not accessible at ::pyo3.
dictGives instances of this class an empty __dict__ to store custom attributes.
extends = BaseTypeUse a custom baseclass. Defaults to PyAny
freelist = NImplements a free list of size N. This can improve performance for types that are often created and deleted in quick succession. Profile your code to see whether freelist is right for you.
mappingInform PyO3 that this class is a Mapping, and so leave its implementation of sequence C-API slots empty.
module = "module_name"Python code will see the class as being defined in this module. Defaults to builtins.
name = "python_name"Sets the name that Python sees this class as. Defaults to the name of the Rust struct.
text_signature = "(arg1, arg2, ...)"Sets the text signature for the Python class' __new__ method.
subclassAllows other Python classes and #[pyclass] to inherit from this class. Enums cannot be subclassed.
unsendableRequired if your struct is not Send. Rather than using unsendable, consider implementing your struct in a threadsafe way by e.g. substituting Rc with Arc. By using unsendable, your class will panic when accessed by another thread.
weakrefAllows this class to be weakly referenceable.

All of these parameters can either be passed directly on the #[pyclass(...)] annotation, or as one or more accompanying #[pyo3(...)] annotations, e.g.:

// Argument supplied directly to the `#[pyclass]` annotation.
#[pyclass(name = "SomeName", subclass)]
struct MyClass { }

// Argument supplied as a separate annotation.
#[pyclass]
#[pyo3(name = "SomeName", subclass)]
struct MyClass { }

These parameters are covered in various sections of this guide.

Return type

Generally, #[new] method have to return T: Into<PyClassInitializer<Self>> or PyResult<T> where T: Into<PyClassInitializer<Self>>.

For constructors that may fail, you should wrap the return type in a PyResult as well. Consult the table below to determine which type your constructor should return:

Cannot failMay fail
No inheritanceTPyResult<T>
Inheritance(T Inherits U)(T, U)PyResult<(T, U)>
Inheritance(General Case)PyClassInitializer<T>PyResult<PyClassInitializer<T>>

Inheritance

By default, PyAny is used as the base class. To override this default, use the extends parameter for pyclass with the full path to the base class.

For convenience, (T, U) implements Into<PyClassInitializer<T>> where U is the baseclass of T. But for more deeply nested inheritance, you have to return PyClassInitializer<T> explicitly.

To get a parent class from a child, use PyRef instead of &self for methods, or PyRefMut instead of &mut self. Then you can access a parent class by self_.as_ref() as &Self::BaseClass, or by self_.into_super() as PyRef<Self::BaseClass>.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass(subclass)]
struct BaseClass {
    val1: usize,
}

#[pymethods]
impl BaseClass {
    #[new]
    fn new() -> Self {
        BaseClass { val1: 10 }
    }

    pub fn method(&self) -> PyResult<usize> {
        Ok(self.val1)
    }
}

#[pyclass(extends=BaseClass, subclass)]
struct SubClass {
    val2: usize,
}

#[pymethods]
impl SubClass {
    #[new]
    fn new() -> (Self, BaseClass) {
        (SubClass { val2: 15 }, BaseClass::new())
    }

    fn method2(self_: PyRef<'_, Self>) -> PyResult<usize> {
        let super_ = self_.as_ref();  // Get &BaseClass
        super_.method().map(|x| x * self_.val2)
    }
}

#[pyclass(extends=SubClass)]
struct SubSubClass {
    val3: usize,
}

#[pymethods]
impl SubSubClass {
    #[new]
    fn new() -> PyClassInitializer<Self> {
        PyClassInitializer::from(SubClass::new())
            .add_subclass(SubSubClass{val3: 20})
    }

    fn method3(self_: PyRef<'_, Self>) -> PyResult<usize> {
        let v = self_.val3;
        let super_ = self_.into_super();  // Get PyRef<'_, SubClass>
        SubClass::method2(super_).map(|x| x * v)
    }
}
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let subsub = pyo3::PyCell::new(py, SubSubClass::new()).unwrap();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, subsub, "assert subsub.method3() == 3000")
});
}

You can also inherit native types such as PyDict, if they implement PySizedLayout. However, this is not supported when building for the Python limited API (aka the abi3 feature of PyO3).

However, because of some technical problems, we don't currently provide safe upcasting methods for types that inherit native types. Even in such cases, you can unsafely get a base class by raw pointer conversion.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[cfg(not(Py_LIMITED_API))] {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;
use pyo3::AsPyPointer;
use std::collections::HashMap;

#[pyclass(extends=PyDict)]
#[derive(Default)]
struct DictWithCounter {
    counter: HashMap<String, usize>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl DictWithCounter {
    #[new]
    fn new() -> Self {
        Self::default()
    }
    fn set(mut self_: PyRefMut<'_, Self>, key: String, value: &PyAny) -> PyResult<()> {
        self_.counter.entry(key.clone()).or_insert(0);
        let py = self_.py();
        let dict: &PyDict = unsafe { py.from_borrowed_ptr_or_err(self_.as_ptr())? };
        dict.set_item(key, value)
    }
}
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let cnt = pyo3::PyCell::new(py, DictWithCounter::new()).unwrap();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, cnt, "cnt.set('abc', 10); assert cnt['abc'] == 10")
});
}
}

If SubClass does not provide a baseclass initialization, the compilation fails.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct BaseClass {
    val1: usize,
}

#[pyclass(extends=BaseClass)]
struct SubClass {
    val2: usize,
}

#[pymethods]
impl SubClass {
    #[new]
    fn new() -> Self {
        SubClass { val2: 15 }
    }
}
}

Object properties

PyO3 supports two ways to add properties to your #[pyclass]:

  • For simple struct fields with no side effects, a #[pyo3(get, set)] attribute can be added directly to the field definition in the #[pyclass].
  • For properties which require computation you can define #[getter] and #[setter] functions in the #[pymethods] block.

We'll cover each of these in the following sections.

Object properties using #[pyo3(get, set)]

For simple cases where a member variable is just read and written with no side effects, you can declare getters and setters in your #[pyclass] field definition using the pyo3 attribute, like in the example below:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    #[pyo3(get, set)]
    num: i32
}
}

The above would make the num field available for reading and writing as a self.num Python property. To expose the property with a different name to the field, specify this alongside the rest of the options, e.g. #[pyo3(get, set, name = "custom_name")].

Properties can be readonly or writeonly by using just #[pyo3(get)] or #[pyo3(set)] respectively.

To use these annotations, your field type must implement some conversion traits:

  • For get the field type must implement both IntoPy<PyObject> and Clone.
  • For set the field type must implement FromPyObject.

Object properties using #[getter] and #[setter]

For cases which don't satisfy the #[pyo3(get, set)] trait requirements, or need side effects, descriptor methods can be defined in a #[pymethods] impl block.

This is done using the #[getter] and #[setter] attributes, like in the example below:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    num: i32,
}

#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[getter]
    fn num(&self) -> PyResult<i32> {
        Ok(self.num)
    }
}
}

A getter or setter's function name is used as the property name by default. There are several ways how to override the name.

If a function name starts with get_ or set_ for getter or setter respectively, the descriptor name becomes the function name with this prefix removed. This is also useful in case of Rust keywords like type (raw identifiers can be used since Rust 2018).


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    num: i32,
}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[getter]
    fn get_num(&self) -> PyResult<i32> {
        Ok(self.num)
    }

    #[setter]
    fn set_num(&mut self, value: i32) -> PyResult<()> {
        self.num = value;
        Ok(())
    }
}
}

In this case, a property num is defined and available from Python code as self.num.

Both the #[getter] and #[setter] attributes accept one parameter. If this parameter is specified, it is used as the property name, i.e.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
   num: i32,
}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[getter(number)]
    fn num(&self) -> PyResult<i32> {
        Ok(self.num)
    }

    #[setter(number)]
    fn set_num(&mut self, value: i32) -> PyResult<()> {
        self.num = value;
        Ok(())
    }
}
}

In this case, the property number is defined and available from Python code as self.number.

Attributes defined by #[setter] or #[pyo3(set)] will always raise AttributeError on del operations. Support for defining custom del behavior is tracked in #1778.

Instance methods

To define a Python compatible method, an impl block for your struct has to be annotated with the #[pymethods] attribute. PyO3 generates Python compatible wrappers for all functions in this block with some variations, like descriptors, class method static methods, etc.

Since Rust allows any number of impl blocks, you can easily split methods between those accessible to Python (and Rust) and those accessible only to Rust. However to have multiple #[pymethods]-annotated impl blocks for the same struct you must enable the multiple-pymethods feature of PyO3.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    num: i32,
}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    fn method1(&self) -> PyResult<i32> {
        Ok(10)
    }

    fn set_method(&mut self, value: i32) -> PyResult<()> {
        self.num = value;
        Ok(())
    }
}
}

Calls to these methods are protected by the GIL, so both &self and &mut self can be used. The return type must be PyResult<T> or T for some T that implements IntoPy<PyObject>; the latter is allowed if the method cannot raise Python exceptions.

A Python parameter can be specified as part of method signature, in this case the py argument gets injected by the method wrapper, e.g.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
#[allow(dead_code)]
    num: i32,
}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    fn method2(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<i32> {
        Ok(10)
    }
}
}

From the Python perspective, the method2 in this example does not accept any arguments.

Class methods

To create a class method for a custom class, the method needs to be annotated with the #[classmethod] attribute. This is the equivalent of the Python decorator @classmethod.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyType;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    #[allow(dead_code)]
    num: i32,
}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[classmethod]
    fn cls_method(cls: &PyType) -> PyResult<i32> {
        Ok(10)
    }
}
}

Declares a class method callable from Python.

  • The first parameter is the type object of the class on which the method is called. This may be the type object of a derived class.
  • The first parameter implicitly has type &PyType.
  • For details on parameter-list, see the documentation of Method arguments section.
  • The return type must be PyResult<T> or T for some T that implements IntoPy<PyObject>.

Static methods

To create a static method for a custom class, the method needs to be annotated with the #[staticmethod] attribute. The return type must be T or PyResult<T> for some T that implements IntoPy<PyObject>.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    #[allow(dead_code)]
    num: i32,
}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[staticmethod]
    fn static_method(param1: i32, param2: &str) -> PyResult<i32> {
        Ok(10)
    }
}
}

Class attributes

To create a class attribute (also called class variable), a method without any arguments can be annotated with the #[classattr] attribute.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[classattr]
    fn my_attribute() -> String {
        "hello".to_string()
    }
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let my_class = py.get_type::<MyClass>();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, my_class, "assert my_class.my_attribute == 'hello'")
});
}

Note: if the method has a Result return type and returns an Err, PyO3 will panic during class creation.

If the class attribute is defined with const code only, one can also annotate associated constants:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[classattr]
    const MY_CONST_ATTRIBUTE: &'static str = "foobar";
}
}

Method arguments

By default, PyO3 uses function signatures to determine which arguments are required. Then it scans the incoming args and kwargs parameters. If it can not find all required parameters, it raises a TypeError exception. It is possible to override the default behavior with the #[args(...)] attribute. This attribute accepts a comma separated list of parameters in the form of attr_name="default value". Each parameter has to match the method parameter by name.

Each parameter can be one of the following types:

  • "/": positional-only arguments separator, each parameter defined before "/" is a positional-only parameter. Corresponds to python's def meth(arg1, arg2, ..., /, argN..).
  • "*": var arguments separator, each parameter defined after "*" is a keyword-only parameter. Corresponds to python's def meth(*, arg1.., arg2=..).
  • args="*": "args" is var args, corresponds to Python's def meth(*args). Type of the args parameter has to be &PyTuple.
  • kwargs="**": "kwargs" receives keyword arguments, corresponds to Python's def meth(**kwargs). The type of the kwargs parameter has to be Option<&PyDict>.
  • arg="Value": arguments with default value. Corresponds to Python's def meth(arg=Value). If the arg argument is defined after var arguments, it is treated as a keyword-only argument. Note that Value has to be valid rust code, PyO3 just inserts it into the generated code unmodified.

Example:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyDict, PyTuple};

#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
    num: i32,
}
#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[new]
    #[args(num = "-1")]
    fn new(num: i32) -> Self {
        MyClass { num }
    }

    #[args(
        num = "10",
        py_args = "*",
        name = "\"Hello\"",
        py_kwargs = "**"
    )]
    fn method(
        &mut self,
        num: i32,
        name: &str,
        py_args: &PyTuple,
        py_kwargs: Option<&PyDict>,
    ) -> PyResult<String> {
        self.num = num;
        Ok(format!(
            "py_args={:?}, py_kwargs={:?}, name={}, num={}",
            py_args, py_kwargs, name, self.num
        ))
    }

    fn make_change(&mut self, num: i32) -> PyResult<String> {
        self.num = num;
        Ok(format!("num={}", self.num))
    }
}
}

N.B. the position of the "/" and "*" arguments (if included) control the system of handling positional and keyword arguments. In Python:

import mymodule

mc = mymodule.MyClass()
print(mc.method(44, False, "World", 666, x=44, y=55))
print(mc.method(num=-1, name="World"))
print(mc.make_change(44, False))

Produces output:

py_args=('World', 666), py_kwargs=Some({'x': 44, 'y': 55}), name=Hello, num=44
py_args=(), py_kwargs=None, name=World, num=-1
num=44
num=-1

Making class method signatures available to Python

The text_signature = "..." option for #[pyfunction] also works for classes and methods:

#![allow(dead_code)]
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyType;

// it works even if the item is not documented:
#[pyclass(text_signature = "(c, d, /)")]
struct MyClass {}

#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    // the signature for the constructor is attached
    // to the struct definition instead.
    #[new]
    fn new(c: i32, d: &str) -> Self {
        Self {}
    }
    // the self argument should be written $self
    #[pyo3(text_signature = "($self, e, f)")]
    fn my_method(&self, e: i32, f: i32) -> i32 {
        e + f
    }
    #[classmethod]
    #[pyo3(text_signature = "(cls, e, f)")]
    fn my_class_method(cls: &PyType, e: i32, f: i32) -> i32 {
        e + f
    }
    #[staticmethod]
    #[pyo3(text_signature = "(e, f)")]
    fn my_static_method(e: i32, f: i32) -> i32 {
        e + f
    }
}

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let inspect = PyModule::import(py, "inspect")?.getattr("signature")?;
        let module = PyModule::new(py, "my_module")?;
        module.add_class::<MyClass>()?;
        let class = module.getattr("MyClass")?;

        if cfg!(not(Py_LIMITED_API)) || py.version_info() >= (3, 10)  {
            let doc: String = class.getattr("__doc__")?.extract()?;
            assert_eq!(doc, "");

            let sig: String = inspect
                .call1((class,))?
                .call_method0("__str__")?
                .extract()?;
            assert_eq!(sig, "(c, d, /)");
        } else {
            let doc: String = class.getattr("__doc__")?.extract()?;
            assert_eq!(doc, "");

            inspect.call1((class,)).expect_err("`text_signature` on classes is not compatible with compilation in `abi3` mode until Python 3.10 or greater");
         }

        {
            let method = class.getattr("my_method")?;

            assert!(method.getattr("__doc__")?.is_none());

            let sig: String = inspect
                .call1((method,))?
                .call_method0("__str__")?
                .extract()?;
            assert_eq!(sig, "(self, /, e, f)");
        }

        {
            let method = class.getattr("my_class_method")?;

            assert!(method.getattr("__doc__")?.is_none());

            let sig: String = inspect
                .call1((method,))?
                .call_method0("__str__")?
                .extract()?;
            assert_eq!(sig, "(cls, e, f)");
        }

        {
            let method = class.getattr("my_static_method")?;

            assert!(method.getattr("__doc__")?.is_none());

            let sig: String = inspect
                .call1((method,))?
                .call_method0("__str__")?
                .extract()?;
            assert_eq!(sig, "(e, f)");
        }

        Ok(())
    })
}

Note that text_signature on classes is not compatible with compilation in abi3 mode until Python 3.10 or greater.

#[pyclass] enums

Currently PyO3 only supports fieldless enums. PyO3 adds a class attribute for each variant, so you can access them in Python without defining #[new]. PyO3 also provides default implementations of __richcmp__ and __int__, so they can be compared using ==:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
enum MyEnum {
    Variant,
    OtherVariant,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let x = Py::new(py, MyEnum::Variant).unwrap();
    let y = Py::new(py, MyEnum::OtherVariant).unwrap();
    let cls = py.get_type::<MyEnum>();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, x y cls, r#"
        assert x == cls.Variant
        assert y == cls.OtherVariant
        assert x != y
    "#)
})
}

You can also convert your enums into int:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
enum MyEnum {
    Variant,
    OtherVariant = 10,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let cls = py.get_type::<MyEnum>();
    let x = MyEnum::Variant as i32; // The exact value is assigned by the compiler.
    pyo3::py_run!(py, cls x, r#"
        assert int(cls.Variant) == x
        assert int(cls.OtherVariant) == 10
        assert cls.OtherVariant == 10  # You can also compare against int.
        assert 10 == cls.OtherVariant
    "#)
})
}

PyO3 also provides __repr__ for enums:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
enum MyEnum{
    Variant,
    OtherVariant,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let cls = py.get_type::<MyEnum>();
    let x = Py::new(py, MyEnum::Variant).unwrap();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, cls x, r#"
        assert repr(x) == 'MyEnum.Variant'
        assert repr(cls.OtherVariant) == 'MyEnum.OtherVariant'
    "#)
})
}

All methods defined by PyO3 can be overridden. For example here's how you override __repr__:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
enum MyEnum {
    Answer = 42,
}

#[pymethods]
impl MyEnum {
    fn __repr__(&self) -> &'static str {
        "42"
    }
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let cls = py.get_type::<MyEnum>();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, cls, "assert repr(cls.Answer) == '42'")
})
}

Enums and their variants can also be renamed using #[pyo3(name)].


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass(name = "RenamedEnum")]
enum MyEnum {
    #[pyo3(name = "UPPERCASE")]
    Variant,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let x = Py::new(py, MyEnum::Variant).unwrap();
    let cls = py.get_type::<MyEnum>();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, x cls, r#"
        assert repr(x) == 'RenamedEnum.UPPERCASE'
        assert x == cls.UPPERCASE
    "#)
})
}

You may not use enums as a base class or let enums inherit from other classes.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass(subclass)]
enum BadBase{
    Var1,
}
}

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass(subclass)]
struct Base;

#[pyclass(extends=Base)]
enum BadSubclass{
    Var1,
}
}

#[pyclass] enums are currently not interoperable with IntEnum in Python.

Implementation details

The #[pyclass] macros rely on a lot of conditional code generation: each #[pyclass] can optionally have a #[pymethods] block.

To support this flexibility the #[pyclass] macro expands to a blob of boilerplate code which sets up the structure for "dtolnay specialization". This implementation pattern enables the Rust compiler to use #[pymethods] implementations when they are present, and fall back to default (empty) definitions when they are not.

This simple technique works for the case when there is zero or one implementations. To support multiple #[pymethods] for a #[pyclass] (in the multiple-pymethods feature), a registry mechanism provided by the inventory crate is used instead. This collects impls at library load time, but isn't supported on all platforms. See inventory: how it works for more details.

The #[pyclass] macro expands to roughly the code seen below. The PyClassImplCollector is the type used internally by PyO3 for dtolnay specialization:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[cfg(not(feature = "multiple-pymethods"))] {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
// Note: the implementation differs slightly with the `multiple-pymethods` feature enabled.
struct MyClass {
    #[allow(dead_code)]
    num: i32,
}
unsafe impl ::pyo3::type_object::PyTypeInfo for MyClass {
    type AsRefTarget = ::pyo3::PyCell<Self>;
    const NAME: &'static str = "MyClass";
    const MODULE: ::std::option::Option<&'static str> = ::std::option::Option::None;
    #[inline]
    fn type_object_raw(py: pyo3::Python<'_>) -> *mut pyo3::ffi::PyTypeObject {
        use pyo3::type_object::LazyStaticType;
        static TYPE_OBJECT: LazyStaticType = LazyStaticType::new();
        TYPE_OBJECT.get_or_init::<Self>(py)
    }
}

impl ::pyo3::PyClass for MyClass {
    type Frozen = pyo3::pyclass::boolean_struct::False;
}

impl<'a> ::pyo3::derive_utils::ExtractExt<'a> for &'a mut MyClass {
    type Target = ::pyo3::PyRefMut<'a, MyClass>;
}

impl<'a> ::pyo3::derive_utils::ExtractExt<'a> for &'a MyClass {
    type Target = ::pyo3::PyRef<'a, MyClass>;
}

impl pyo3::IntoPy<PyObject> for MyClass {
    fn into_py(self, py: pyo3::Python<'_>) -> pyo3::PyObject {
        pyo3::IntoPy::into_py(pyo3::Py::new(py, self).unwrap(), py)
    }
}

impl pyo3::impl_::pyclass::PyClassImpl for MyClass {
    const DOC: &'static str = "Class for demonstration\u{0}";
    const IS_BASETYPE: bool = false;
    const IS_SUBCLASS: bool = false;
    type Layout = PyCell<MyClass>;
    type BaseType = PyAny;
    type ThreadChecker = pyo3::impl_::pyclass::ThreadCheckerStub<MyClass>;
    type PyClassMutability = pyo3::pycell::MutableClass;
    type Dict = ::pyo3::impl_::pyclass::PyClassDummySlot;
    type WeakRef = ::pyo3::impl_::pyclass::PyClassDummySlot;
    type BaseNativeType = ::pyo3::PyAny;

    fn for_all_items(visitor: &mut dyn FnMut(&pyo3::impl_::pyclass::PyClassItems)) {
        use pyo3::impl_::pyclass::*;
        let collector = PyClassImplCollector::<MyClass>::new();
        static INTRINSIC_ITEMS: PyClassItems = PyClassItems { slots: &[], methods: &[] };
        visitor(&INTRINSIC_ITEMS);
        visitor(collector.py_methods());
    }
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let cls = py.get_type::<MyClass>();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, cls, "assert cls.__name__ == 'MyClass'")
});
}
}

Magic methods and slots

Python's object model defines several protocols for different object behavior, such as the sequence, mapping, and number protocols. You may be familiar with implementing these protocols in Python classes by "magic" methods, such as __str__ or __repr__. Because of the double-underscores surrounding their name, these are also known as "dunder" methods.

In the Python C-API which PyO3 is implemented upon, many of these magic methods have to be placed into special "slots" on the class type object, as covered in the previous section. There are two ways in which this can be done:

  • In #[pymethods], if the name of the method is a recognised magic method, PyO3 will place it in the type object automatically.
  • [Deprecated since PyO3 0.16] In special traits combined with the #[pyproto] attribute.

(There are also many magic methods which don't have a special slot, such as __dir__. These methods can be implemented as normal in #[pymethods].)

If a function name in #[pymethods] is a recognised magic method, it will be automatically placed into the correct slot in the Python type object. The function name is taken from the usual rules for naming #[pymethods]: the #[pyo3(name = "...")] attribute is used if present, otherwise the Rust function name is used.

The magic methods handled by PyO3 are very similar to the standard Python ones on this page - in particular they are the the subset which have slots as defined here. Some of the slots do not have a magic method in Python, which leads to a few additional magic methods defined only in PyO3:

  • Magic methods for garbage collection
  • Magic methods for the buffer protocol

When PyO3 handles a magic method, a couple of changes apply compared to other #[pymethods]:

  • The #[pyo3(text_signature = "...")] attribute is not allowed
  • The signature is restricted to match the magic method

The following sections list of all magic methods PyO3 currently handles. The given signatures should be interpreted as follows:

  • All methods take a receiver as first argument, shown as <self>. It can be &self, &mut self or a PyCell reference like self_: PyRef<'_, Self> and self_: PyRefMut<'_, Self>, as described here.
  • An optional Python<'py> argument is always allowed as the first argument.
  • Return values can be optionally wrapped in PyResult.
  • object means that any type is allowed that can be extracted from a Python object (if argument) or converted to a Python object (if return value).
  • Other types must match what's given, e.g. pyo3::basic::CompareOp for __richcmp__'s second argument.
  • For the comparison and arithmetic methods, extraction errors are not propagated as exceptions, but lead to a return of NotImplemented.
  • For some magic methods, the return values are not restricted by PyO3, but checked by the Python interpreter. For example, __str__ needs to return a string object. This is indicated by object (Python type).

Basic object customization

  • __str__(<self>) -> object (str)

  • __repr__(<self>) -> object (str)

  • __hash__(<self>) -> isize

    Objects that compare equal must have the same hash value.

    Disabling Python's default hash By default, all `#[pyclass]` types have a default hash implementation from Python. Types which should not be hashable can override this by setting `__hash__` to `None`. This is the same mechanism as for a pure-Python class. This is done like so:
    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    
    #[pyclass]
    struct NotHashable { }
    
    #[pymethods]
    impl NotHashable {
        #[classattr]
        const __hash__: Option<PyObject> = None;
    }
    }
    
  • __richcmp__(<self>, object, pyo3::basic::CompareOp) -> object

    Overloads Python comparison operations (==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=). The CompareOp argument indicates the comparison operation being performed.

    Return type The return type will normally be `PyResult`, but any Python object can be returned. If the second argument `object` is not of the type specified in the signature, the generated code will automatically `return NotImplemented`.

    You can use CompareOp::matches to adapt a Rust std::cmp::Ordering result to the requested comparison.

  • __getattr__(<self>, object) -> object

  • __getattribute__(<self>, object) -> object

    Differences between `__getattr__` and `__getattribute__` As in Python, `__getattr__` is only called if the attribute is not found by normal attribute lookup. `__getattribute__`, on the other hand, is called for *every* attribute access. If it wants to access existing attributes on `self`, it needs to be very careful not to introduce infinite recursion, and use `baseclass.__getattribute__()`.
  • __setattr__(<self>, value: object) -> ()

  • __delattr__(<self>, object) -> ()

    Overrides attribute access.

  • __bool__(<self>) -> bool

    Determines the "truthyness" of an object.

  • __call__(<self>, ...) -> object - here, any argument list can be defined as for normal pymethods

Iterable objects

Iterators can be defined using these methods:

  • __iter__(<self>) -> object
  • __next__(<self>) -> Option<object> or IterNextOutput (see details)

Returning None from __next__ indicates that that there are no further items.

Example:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct MyIterator {
    iter: Box<dyn Iterator<Item = PyObject> + Send>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl MyIterator {
    fn __iter__(slf: PyRef<'_, Self>) -> PyRef<'_, Self> {
        slf
    }
    fn __next__(mut slf: PyRefMut<'_, Self>) -> Option<PyObject> {
        slf.iter.next()
    }
}
}

In many cases you'll have a distinction between the type being iterated over (i.e. the iterable) and the iterator it provides. In this case, the iterable only needs to implement __iter__() while the iterator must implement both __iter__() and __next__(). For example:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Iter {
    inner: std::vec::IntoIter<usize>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl Iter {
    fn __iter__(slf: PyRef<'_, Self>) -> PyRef<'_, Self> {
        slf
    }

    fn __next__(mut slf: PyRefMut<'_, Self>) -> Option<usize> {
        slf.inner.next()
    }
}

#[pyclass]
struct Container {
    iter: Vec<usize>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl Container {
    fn __iter__(slf: PyRef<'_, Self>) -> PyResult<Py<Iter>> {
        let iter = Iter {
            inner: slf.iter.clone().into_iter(),
        };
        Py::new(slf.py(), iter)
    }
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let container = Container { iter: vec![1, 2, 3, 4] };
    let inst = pyo3::PyCell::new(py, container).unwrap();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, inst, "assert list(inst) == [1, 2, 3, 4]");
    pyo3::py_run!(py, inst, "assert list(iter(iter(inst))) == [1, 2, 3, 4]");
});
}

For more details on Python's iteration protocols, check out the "Iterator Types" section of the library documentation.

Returning a value from iteration

This guide has so far shown how to use Option<T> to implement yielding values during iteration. In Python a generator can also return a value. To express this in Rust, PyO3 provides the IterNextOutput enum to both Yield values and Return a final value - see its docs for further details and an example.

Awaitable objects

  • __await__(<self>) -> object
  • __aiter__(<self>) -> object
  • __anext__(<self>) -> Option<object> or IterANextOutput

Mapping & Sequence types

The magic methods in this section can be used to implement Python container types. They are two main categories of container in Python: "mappings" such as dict, with arbitrary keys, and "sequences" such as list and tuple, with integer keys.

The Python C-API which PyO3 is built upon has separate "slots" for sequences and mappings. When writing a class in pure Python, there is no such distinction in the implementation - a __getitem__ implementation will fill the slots for both the mapping and sequence forms, for example.

By default PyO3 reproduces the Python behaviour of filling both mapping and sequence slots. This makes sense for the "simple" case which matches Python, and also for sequences, where the mapping slot is used anyway to implement slice indexing.

Mapping types usually will not want the sequence slots filled. Having them filled will lead to outcomes which may be unwanted, such as:

  • The mapping type will successfully cast to PySequence. This may lead to consumers of the type handling it incorrectly.
  • Python provides a default implementation of __iter__ for sequences, which calls __getitem__ with consecutive positive integers starting from 0 until an IndexError is returned. Unless the mapping only contains consecutive positive integer keys, this __iter__ implementation will likely not be the intended behavior.

Use the #[pyclass(mapping)] annotation to instruct PyO3 to only fill the mapping slots, leaving the sequence ones empty. This will apply to __getitem__, __setitem__, and __delitem__.

  • __len__(<self>) -> usize

    Implements the built-in function len() for the sequence.

  • __contains__(<self>, object) -> bool

    Implements membership test operators. Should return true if item is in self, false otherwise. For objects that don’t define __contains__(), the membership test simply traverses the sequence until it finds a match.

    Disabling Python's default contains

    By default, all #[pyclass] types with an __iter__ method support a default implementation of the in operator. Types which do not want this can override this by setting __contains__ to None. This is the same mechanism as for a pure-Python class. This is done like so:

    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    
    #[pyclass]
    struct NoContains { }
    
    #[pymethods]
    impl NoContains {
        #[classattr]
        const __contains__: Option<PyObject> = None;
    }
    }
    
  • __getitem__(<self>, object) -> object

    Implements retrieval of the self[a] element.

    Note: Negative integer indexes are not handled specially.

  • __setitem__(<self>, object, object) -> ()

    Implements assignment to the self[a] element. Should only be implemented if elements can be replaced.

  • __delitem__(<self>, object) -> ()

    Implements deletion of the self[a] element. Should only be implemented if elements can be deleted.

  • fn __concat__(&self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

    Concatenates two sequences. Used by the + operator, after trying the numeric addition via the __add__ and __radd__ methods.

  • fn __repeat__(&self, count: isize) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

    Repeats the sequence count times. Used by the * operator, after trying the numeric multiplication via the __mul__ and __rmul__ methods.

  • fn __inplace_concat__(&self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

    Concatenates two sequences. Used by the += operator, after trying the numeric addition via the __iadd__ method.

  • fn __inplace_repeat__(&self, count: isize) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

    Concatenates two sequences. Used by the *= operator, after trying the numeric multiplication via the __imul__ method.

Descriptors

  • __get__(<self>, object, object) -> object
  • __set__(<self>, object, object) -> ()
  • __delete__(<self>, object) -> ()

Numeric types

Binary arithmetic operations (+, -, *, @, /, //, %, divmod(), pow() and **, <<, >>, &, ^, and |) and their reflected versions:

(If the object is not of the type specified in the signature, the generated code will automatically return NotImplemented.)

  • __add__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __radd__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __sub__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rsub__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __mul__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rmul__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __matmul__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rmatmul__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __floordiv__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rfloordiv__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __truediv__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rtruediv__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __divmod__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rdivmod__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __mod__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rmod__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __lshift__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rlshift__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rshift__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rrshift__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __and__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rand__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __xor__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __rxor__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __or__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __ror__(<self>, object) -> object
  • __pow__(<self>, object, object) -> object
  • __rpow__(<self>, object, object) -> object

In-place assignment operations (+=, -=, *=, @=, /=, //=, %=, **=, <<=, >>=, &=, ^=, |=):

  • __iadd__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __isub__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __imul__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __imatmul__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __itruediv__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __ifloordiv__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __imod__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __ipow__(<self>, object, object) -> ()
  • __ilshift__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __irshift__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __iand__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __ixor__(<self>, object) -> ()
  • __ior__(<self>, object) -> ()

Unary operations (-, +, abs() and ~):

  • __pos__(<self>) -> object
  • __neg__(<self>) -> object
  • __abs__(<self>) -> object
  • __invert__(<self>) -> object

Coercions:

  • __index__(<self>) -> object (int)
  • __int__(<self>) -> object (int)
  • __float__(<self>) -> object (float)

Buffer objects

  • __getbuffer__(<self>, *mut ffi::Py_buffer, flags) -> ()
  • __releasebuffer__(<self>, *mut ffi::Py_buffer) (no return value, not even PyResult)

Garbage Collector Integration

If your type owns references to other Python objects, you will need to integrate with Python's garbage collector so that the GC is aware of those references. To do this, implement the two methods __traverse__ and __clear__. These correspond to the slots tp_traverse and tp_clear in the Python C API. __traverse__ must call visit.call() for each reference to another Python object. __clear__ must clear out any mutable references to other Python objects (thus breaking reference cycles). Immutable references do not have to be cleared, as every cycle must contain at least one mutable reference.

  • __traverse__(<self>, pyo3::class::gc::PyVisit<'_>) -> Result<(), pyo3::class::gc::PyTraverseError>
  • __clear__(<self>) -> ()

Example:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::PyTraverseError;
use pyo3::gc::PyVisit;

#[pyclass]
struct ClassWithGCSupport {
    obj: Option<PyObject>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl ClassWithGCSupport {
    fn __traverse__(&self, visit: PyVisit<'_>) -> Result<(), PyTraverseError> {
        if let Some(obj) = &self.obj {
            visit.call(obj)?
        }
        Ok(())
    }

    fn __clear__(&mut self) {
        // Clear reference, this decrements ref counter.
        self.obj = None;
    }
}
}

#[pyproto] traits

PyO3 can use the #[pyproto] attribute in combination with special traits to implement the magic methods which need slots. The special traits are listed below. See also the documentation for the pyo3::class module.

Due to complexity in the implementation and usage, these traits were deprecated in PyO3 0.16 in favour of the #[pymethods] solution.

All #[pyproto] methods can return T instead of PyResult<T> if the method implementation is infallible. In addition, if the return type is (), it can be omitted altogether.

Basic object customization

The PyObjectProtocol trait provides several basic customizations.

  • fn __str__(&self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject<ObjectType=PyString>>
  • fn __repr__(&self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject<ObjectType=PyString>>
  • fn __hash__(&self) -> PyResult<impl PrimInt>
  • fn __richcmp__(&self, other: impl FromPyObject, op: CompareOp) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __getattr__(&self, name: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl IntoPy<PyObject>>
  • fn __setattr__(&mut self, name: impl FromPyObject, value: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __delattr__(&mut self, name: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __bool__(&self) -> PyResult<bool>

Emulating numeric types

The PyNumberProtocol trait can be implemented to emulate numeric types.

  • fn __add__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __sub__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __mul__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __matmul__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __truediv__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __floordiv__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __mod__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __divmod__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __pow__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject, modulo: Option<impl FromPyObject>) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __lshift__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rshift__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __and__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __or__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __xor__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic operations.

The reflected operations are also available:

  • fn __radd__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rsub__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rmul__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rmatmul__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rtruediv__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rfloordiv__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rmod__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rdivmod__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rpow__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject, modulo: Option<impl FromPyObject>) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rlshift__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rrshift__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rand__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __ror__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __rxor__(lhs: impl FromPyObject, rhs: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

The code generated for these methods expect that all arguments match the signature, or raise a TypeError.

  • fn __iadd__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __isub__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __imul__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __imatmul__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __itruediv__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __ifloordiv__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __imod__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __ipow__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject, modulo: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()> on Python 3.8^
  • fn __ipow__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()> on Python 3.7 see https://bugs.python.org/issue36379
  • fn __ilshift__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __irshift__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __iand__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __ior__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>
  • fn __ixor__(&'p mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>

The following methods implement the unary arithmetic operations:

  • fn __neg__(&'p self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __pos__(&'p self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __abs__(&'p self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __invert__(&'p self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

Support for coercions:

  • fn __int__(&'p self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __float__(&'p self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>
  • fn __index__(&'p self) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

Emulating sequential containers (such as lists or tuples)

The PySequenceProtocol trait can be implemented to emulate sequential container types.

For a sequence, the keys are the integers k for which 0 <= k < N, where N is the length of the sequence.

  • fn __len__(&self) -> PyResult<usize>

    Implements the built-in function len() for the sequence.

  • fn __getitem__(&self, idx: isize) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

    Implements evaluation of the self[idx] element. If the idx value is outside the set of indexes for the sequence, IndexError should be raised.

    Note: Negative integer indexes are handled as follows: if __len__() is defined, it is called and the sequence length is used to compute a positive index, which is passed to __getitem__(). If __len__() is not defined, the index is passed as is to the function.

  • fn __setitem__(&mut self, idx: isize, value: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>

    Implements assignment to the self[idx] element. Same note as for __getitem__(). Should only be implemented if sequence elements can be replaced.

  • fn __delitem__(&mut self, idx: isize) -> PyResult<()>

    Implements deletion of the self[idx] element. Same note as for __getitem__(). Should only be implemented if sequence elements can be deleted.

  • fn __contains__(&self, item: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<bool>

    Implements membership test operators. Should return true if item is in self, false otherwise. For objects that don’t define __contains__(), the membership test simply traverses the sequence until it finds a match.

  • fn __concat__(&self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

    Concatenates two sequences. Used by the + operator, after trying the numeric addition via the PyNumberProtocol trait method.

  • fn __repeat__(&self, count: isize) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

    Repeats the sequence count times. Used by the * operator, after trying the numeric multiplication via the PyNumberProtocol trait method.

  • fn __inplace_concat__(&mut self, other: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<Self>

    Concatenates two sequences in place. Returns the modified first operand. Used by the += operator, after trying the numeric in place addition via the PyNumberProtocol trait method.

  • fn __inplace_repeat__(&mut self, count: isize) -> PyResult<Self>

    Repeats the sequence count times in place. Returns the modified first operand. Used by the *= operator, after trying the numeric in place multiplication via the PyNumberProtocol trait method.

Emulating mapping containers (such as dictionaries)

The PyMappingProtocol trait allows to emulate mapping container types.

For a mapping, the keys may be Python objects of arbitrary type.

  • fn __len__(&self) -> PyResult<usize>

    Implements the built-in function len() for the mapping.

  • fn __getitem__(&self, key: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<impl ToPyObject>

    Implements evaluation of the self[key] element. If key is of an inappropriate type, TypeError may be raised; if key is missing (not in the container), KeyError should be raised.

  • fn __setitem__(&mut self, key: impl FromPyObject, value: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>

    Implements assignment to the self[key] element or insertion of a new key mapping to value. Should only be implemented if the mapping support changes to the values for keys, or if new keys can be added. The same exceptions should be raised for improper key values as for the __getitem__() method.

  • fn __delitem__(&mut self, key: impl FromPyObject) -> PyResult<()>

    Implements deletion of the self[key] element. Should only be implemented if the mapping supports removal of keys. The same exceptions should be raised for improper key values as for the __getitem__() method.

Iterator Types

Iterators can be defined using the PyIterProtocol trait. It includes two methods __iter__ and __next__:

  • fn __iter__(slf: PyRefMut<'_, Self>) -> PyResult<impl IntoPy<PyObject>>
  • fn __next__(slf: PyRefMut<'_, Self>) -> PyResult<Option<impl IntoPy<PyObject>>>

These two methods can be take either PyRef<'_, Self> or PyRefMut<'_, Self> as their first argument, so that mutable borrow can be avoided if needed.

For details, look at the #[pymethods] regarding iterator methods.

Garbage Collector Integration

Implement the PyGCProtocol trait for your struct. For details, look at the #[pymethods] regarding GC methods.

Basic object customization

Recall the Number class from the previous chapter:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    #[new]
    fn new(value: i32) -> Self {
        Self(value)
    }
}

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_class::<Number>()?;
    Ok(())
}
}

At this point Python code can import the module, access the class and create class instances - but nothing else.

from my_module import Number

n = Number(5)
print(n)
<builtins.Number object at 0x000002B4D185D7D0>

String representations

It can't even print an user-readable representation of itself! We can fix that by defining the __repr__ and __str__ methods inside a #[pymethods] block. We do this by accessing the value contained inside Number.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
   // For `__repr__` we want to return a string that Python code could use to recreate
   // the `Number`, like `Number(5)` for example.
   fn __repr__(&self) -> String {
       // We use the `format!` macro to create a string. Its first argument is a
       // format string, followed by any number of parameters which replace the
       // `{}`'s in the format string.
       //
       //                       πŸ‘‡ Tuple field access in Rust uses a dot
       format!("Number({})", self.0)
   }

   // `__str__` is generally used to create an "informal" representation, so we
   // just forward to `i32`'s `ToString` trait implementation to print a bare number.
   fn __str__(&self) -> String {
       self.0.to_string()
   }
}
}

Hashing

Let's also implement hashing. We'll just hash the i32. For that we need a Hasher. The one provided by std is DefaultHasher, which uses the SipHash algorithm.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use std::collections::hash_map::DefaultHasher;

// Required to call the `.hash` and `.finish` methods, which are defined on traits.
use std::hash::{Hash, Hasher};

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    fn __hash__(&self) -> u64 {
        let mut hasher = DefaultHasher::new();
        self.0.hash(&mut hasher);
        hasher.finish()
    }
}
}

Note: When implementing __hash__ and comparisons, it is important that the following property holds:

k1 == k2 -> hash(k1) == hash(k2)

In other words, if two keys are equal, their hashes must also be equal. In addition you must take care that your classes' hash doesn't change during its lifetime. In this tutorial we do that by not letting Python code change our Number class. In other words, it is immutable.

By default, all #[pyclass] types have a default hash implementation from Python. Types which should not be hashable can override this by setting __hash__ to None. This is the same mechanism as for a pure-Python class. This is done like so:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct NotHashable { }

#[pymethods]
impl NotHashable {
   #[classattr]
   const __hash__: Option<Py<PyAny>> = None;
}
}

Comparisons

Unlike in Python, PyO3 does not provide the magic comparison methods you might expect like __eq__, __lt__ and so on. Instead you have to implement all six operations at once with __richcmp__. This method will be called with a value of CompareOp depending on the operation.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::class::basic::CompareOp;

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    fn __richcmp__(&self, other: &Self, op: CompareOp) -> PyResult<bool> {
        match op {
            CompareOp::Lt => Ok(self.0 < other.0),
            CompareOp::Le => Ok(self.0 <= other.0),
            CompareOp::Eq => Ok(self.0 == other.0),
            CompareOp::Ne => Ok(self.0 != other.0),
            CompareOp::Gt => Ok(self.0 > other.0),
            CompareOp::Ge => Ok(self.0 >= other.0),
        }
    }
}
}

If you obtain the result by comparing two Rust values, as in this example, you can take a shortcut using CompareOp::matches:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::class::basic::CompareOp;

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    fn __richcmp__(&self, other: &Self, op: CompareOp) -> bool {
        op.matches(self.0.cmp(&other.0))
    }
}
}

It checks that the std::cmp::Ordering obtained from Rust's Ord matches the given CompareOp.

Truthyness

We'll consider Number to be True if it is nonzero:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    fn __bool__(&self) -> bool {
        self.0 != 0
    }
}
}

Final code


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use std::collections::hash_map::DefaultHasher;
use std::hash::{Hash, Hasher};

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::class::basic::CompareOp;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    #[new]
    fn new(value: i32) -> Self {
        Self(value)
    }

    fn __repr__(&self) -> String {
        format!("Number({})", self.0)
    }

    fn __str__(&self) -> String {
        self.0.to_string()
    }

    fn __hash__(&self) -> u64 {
        let mut hasher = DefaultHasher::new();
        self.0.hash(&mut hasher);
        hasher.finish()
    }

    fn __richcmp__(&self, other: &Self, op: CompareOp) -> PyResult<bool> {
        match op {
            CompareOp::Lt => Ok(self.0 < other.0),
            CompareOp::Le => Ok(self.0 <= other.0),
            CompareOp::Eq => Ok(self.0 == other.0),
            CompareOp::Ne => Ok(self.0 != other.0),
            CompareOp::Gt => Ok(self.0 > other.0),
            CompareOp::Ge => Ok(self.0 >= other.0),
        }
    }

    fn __bool__(&self) -> bool {
        self.0 != 0
    }
}

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_class::<Number>()?;
    Ok(())
}
}

Emulating numeric types

At this point we have a Number class that we can't actually do any math on!

Before proceeding, we should think about how we want to handle overflows. There are three obvious solutions:

  • We can have infinite precision just like Python's int. However that would be quite boring - we'd be reinventing the wheel.
  • We can raise exceptions whenever Number overflows, but that makes the API painful to use.
  • We can wrap around the boundary of i32. This is the approach we'll take here. To do that we'll just forward to i32's wrapping_* methods.

Fixing our constructor

Let's address the first overflow, in Number's constructor:

from my_module import Number

n = Number(1 << 1337)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "example.py", line 3, in <module>
    n = Number(1 << 1337)
OverflowError: Python int too large to convert to C long

Instead of relying on the default FromPyObject extraction to parse arguments, we can specify our own extraction function, using the #[pyo3(from_py_with = "...")] attribute. Unfortunately PyO3 doesn't provide a way to wrap Python integers out of the box, but we can do a Python call to mask it and cast it to an i32.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn wrap(obj: &PyAny) -> Result<i32, PyErr> {
    let val = obj.call_method1("__and__", (0xFFFFFFFF_u32,))?;
    let val: u32 = val.extract()?;
    //     πŸ‘‡ This intentionally overflows!
    Ok(val as i32)
}
}

We also add documentation, via /// comments and the #[pyo3(text_signature = "...")] attribute, both of which are visible to Python users.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn wrap(obj: &PyAny) -> Result<i32, PyErr> {
    let val = obj.call_method1("__and__", (0xFFFFFFFF_u32,))?;
    let val: u32 = val.extract()?;
    Ok(val as i32)
}

/// Did you ever hear the tragedy of Darth Signed The Overfloweth? I thought not.
/// It's not a story C would tell you. It's a Rust legend.
#[pyclass(module = "my_module")]
#[pyo3(text_signature = "(int)")]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    #[new]
    fn new(#[pyo3(from_py_with = "wrap")] value: i32) -> Self {
        Self(value)
    }
}
}

With that out of the way, let's implement some operators:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use std::convert::TryInto;
use pyo3::exceptions::{PyZeroDivisionError, PyValueError};

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    fn __add__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0.wrapping_add(other.0))
    }

    fn __sub__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0.wrapping_sub(other.0))
    }

    fn __mul__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0.wrapping_mul(other.0))
    }

    fn __truediv__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        match self.0.checked_div(other.0) {
            Some(i) => Ok(Self(i)),
            None => Err(PyZeroDivisionError::new_err("division by zero")),
        }
    }

    fn __floordiv__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        match self.0.checked_div(other.0) {
            Some(i) => Ok(Self(i)),
            None => Err(PyZeroDivisionError::new_err("division by zero")),
        }
    }

    fn __rshift__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        match other.0.try_into() {
            Ok(rhs) => Ok(Self(self.0.wrapping_shr(rhs))),
            Err(_) => Err(PyValueError::new_err("negative shift count")),
        }
    }

    fn __lshift__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        match other.0.try_into() {
            Ok(rhs) => Ok(Self(self.0.wrapping_shl(rhs))),
            Err(_) => Err(PyValueError::new_err("negative shift count")),
        }
    }
}
}

Unary arithmetic operations


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    fn __pos__(slf: PyRef<'_, Self>) -> PyRef<'_, Self> {
        slf
    }

    fn __neg__(&self) -> Self {
        Self(-self.0)
    }

    fn __abs__(&self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0.abs())
    }

    fn __invert__(&self) -> Self {
        Self(!self.0)
    }
}
}

Support for the complex(), int() and float() built-in functions.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Number(i32);

use pyo3::types::PyComplex;

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    fn __int__(&self) -> i32 {
        self.0
    }

    fn __float__(&self) -> f64 {
        self.0 as f64
    }

    fn __complex__<'py>(&self, py: Python<'py>) -> &'py PyComplex {
        PyComplex::from_doubles(py, self.0 as f64, 0.0)
    }
}
}

We do not implement the in-place operations like __iadd__ because we do not wish to mutate Number. Similarly we're not interested in supporting operations with different types, so we do not implement the reflected operations like __radd__ either.

Now Python can use our Number class:

from my_module import Number

def hash_djb2(s: str):
	'''
	A version of Daniel J. Bernstein's djb2 string hashing algorithm
	Like many hashing algorithms, it relies on integer wrapping.
	'''

	n = Number(0)
	five = Number(5)

	for x in s:
		n = Number(ord(x)) + ((n << five) - n)
	return n

assert hash_djb2('l50_50') == Number(-1152549421)

Final code

use std::collections::hash_map::DefaultHasher;
use std::hash::{Hash, Hasher};
use std::convert::TryInto;

use pyo3::exceptions::{PyValueError, PyZeroDivisionError};
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::class::basic::CompareOp;
use pyo3::types::PyComplex;

fn wrap(obj: &PyAny) -> Result<i32, PyErr> {
    let val = obj.call_method1("__and__", (0xFFFFFFFF_u32,))?;
    let val: u32 = val.extract()?;
    Ok(val as i32)
}
/// Did you ever hear the tragedy of Darth Signed The Overfloweth? I thought not.
/// It's not a story C would tell you. It's a Rust legend.
#[pyclass(module = "my_module")]
#[pyo3(text_signature = "(int)")]
struct Number(i32);

#[pymethods]
impl Number {
    #[new]
    fn new(#[pyo3(from_py_with = "wrap")] value: i32) -> Self {
        Self(value)
    }

    fn __repr__(&self) -> String {
        format!("Number({})", self.0)
    }

    fn __str__(&self) -> String {
        self.0.to_string()
    }

    fn __hash__(&self) -> u64 {
        let mut hasher = DefaultHasher::new();
        self.0.hash(&mut hasher);
        hasher.finish()
    }

    fn __richcmp__(&self, other: &Self, op: CompareOp) -> PyResult<bool> {
        match op {
            CompareOp::Lt => Ok(self.0 < other.0),
            CompareOp::Le => Ok(self.0 <= other.0),
            CompareOp::Eq => Ok(self.0 == other.0),
            CompareOp::Ne => Ok(self.0 != other.0),
            CompareOp::Gt => Ok(self.0 > other.0),
            CompareOp::Ge => Ok(self.0 >= other.0),
        }
    }

    fn __bool__(&self) -> bool {
        self.0 != 0
    }

    fn __add__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0.wrapping_add(other.0))
    }

    fn __sub__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0.wrapping_sub(other.0))
    }

    fn __mul__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0.wrapping_mul(other.0))
    }

    fn __truediv__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        match self.0.checked_div(other.0) {
            Some(i) => Ok(Self(i)),
            None => Err(PyZeroDivisionError::new_err("division by zero")),
        }
    }

    fn __floordiv__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        match self.0.checked_div(other.0) {
            Some(i) => Ok(Self(i)),
            None => Err(PyZeroDivisionError::new_err("division by zero")),
        }
    }

    fn __rshift__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        match other.0.try_into() {
            Ok(rhs) => Ok(Self(self.0.wrapping_shr(rhs))),
            Err(_) => Err(PyValueError::new_err("negative shift count")),
        }
    }

    fn __lshift__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        match other.0.try_into() {
            Ok(rhs) => Ok(Self(self.0.wrapping_shl(rhs))),
            Err(_) => Err(PyValueError::new_err("negative shift count")),
        }
    }

    fn __xor__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0 ^ other.0)
    }

    fn __or__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0 | other.0)
    }

    fn __and__(&self, other: &Self) -> Self {
        Self(self.0 & other.0)
    }

    fn __int__(&self) -> i32 {
        self.0
    }

    fn __float__(&self) -> f64 {
        self.0 as f64
    }

    fn __complex__<'py>(&self, py: Python<'py>) -> &'py PyComplex {
        PyComplex::from_doubles(py, self.0 as f64, 0.0)
    }
}

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_class::<Number>()?;
    Ok(())
}
const SCRIPT: &'static str = r#"
def hash_djb2(s: str):
    n = Number(0)
    five = Number(5)

    for x in s:
        n = Number(ord(x)) + ((n << five) - n)
    return n

assert hash_djb2('l50_50') == Number(-1152549421)
assert hash_djb2('logo') == Number(3327403)
assert hash_djb2('horizon') == Number(1097468315)


assert Number(2) + Number(2) == Number(4)
assert Number(2) + Number(2) != Number(5)

assert Number(13) - Number(7) == Number(6)
assert Number(13) - Number(-7) == Number(20)

assert Number(13) / Number(7) == Number(1)
assert Number(13) // Number(7) == Number(1)

assert Number(13) * Number(7) == Number(13*7)

assert Number(13) > Number(7)
assert Number(13) < Number(20)
assert Number(13) == Number(13)
assert Number(13) >= Number(7)
assert Number(13) <= Number(20)
assert Number(13) == Number(13)


assert (True if Number(1) else False)
assert (False if Number(0) else True)


assert int(Number(13)) == 13
assert float(Number(13)) == 13
assert Number.__doc__ == "Did you ever hear the tragedy of Darth Signed The Overfloweth? I thought not.\nIt's not a story C would tell you. It's a Rust legend."
assert Number(12345234523452) == Number(1498514748)
try:
    import inspect
    assert inspect.signature(Number).__str__() == '(int)'
except ValueError:
    # Not supported with `abi3` before Python 3.10
    pass
assert Number(1337).__str__() == '1337'
assert Number(1337).__repr__() == 'Number(1337)'
"#;


use pyo3::PyTypeInfo;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        let globals = PyModule::import(py, "__main__")?.dict();
        globals.set_item("Number", Number::type_object(py))?;

        py.run(SCRIPT, Some(globals), None)?;
        Ok(())
    })
}

Appendix: Writing some unsafe code

At the beginning of this chapter we said that PyO3 doesn't provide a way to wrap Python integers out of the box but that's a half truth. There's not a PyO3 API for it, but there's a Python C API function that does:

unsigned long PyLong_AsUnsignedLongMask(PyObject *obj)

We can call this function from Rust by using pyo3::ffi::PyLong_AsUnsignedLongMask. This is an unsafe function, which means we have to use an unsafe block to call it and take responsibility for upholding the contracts of this function. Let's review those contracts:

  • The GIL must be held. If it's not, calling this function causes a data race.
  • The pointer must be valid, i.e. it must be properly aligned and point to a valid Python object.

Let's create that helper function. The signature has to be fn(&PyAny) -> PyResult<T>.

  • &PyAny represents a checked borrowed reference, so the pointer derived from it is valid (and not null).
  • Whenever we have borrowed references to Python objects in scope, it is guaranteed that the GIL is held. This reference is also where we can get a Python token to use in our call to PyErr::take.

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
use std::os::raw::c_ulong;
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::ffi;
use pyo3::conversion::AsPyPointer;

fn wrap(obj: &PyAny) -> Result<i32, PyErr> {
    let py: Python<'_> = obj.py();

    unsafe {
        let ptr = obj.as_ptr();

        let ret: c_ulong = ffi::PyLong_AsUnsignedLongMask(ptr);
        if ret == c_ulong::MAX {
            if let Some(err) = PyErr::take(py) {
                return Err(err);
            }
        }

        Ok(ret as i32)
    }
}
}

Emulating callable objects

Classes can be callable if they have a #[pymethod] named __call__. This allows instances of a class to behave similar to functions.

This method's signature must look like __call__(<self>, ...) -> object - here, any argument list can be defined as for normal pymethods

Example: Implementing a call counter

The following pyclass is a basic decorator - its constructor takes a Python object as argument and calls that object when called. An equivalent Python implementation is linked at the end.

An example crate containing this pyclass can be found here

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyDict, PyTuple};

/// A function decorator that keeps track how often it is called.
///
/// It otherwise doesn't do anything special.
#[pyclass(name = "Counter")]
pub struct PyCounter {
    // We use `#[pyo3(get)]` so that python can read the count but not mutate it.
    #[pyo3(get)]
    count: u64,

    // This is the actual function being wrapped.
    wraps: Py<PyAny>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl PyCounter {
    // Note that we don't validate whether `wraps` is actually callable.
    //
    // While we could use `PyAny::is_callable` for that, it has some flaws:
    //    1. It doesn't guarantee the object can actually be called successfully
    //    2. We still need to handle any exceptions that the function might raise
    #[new]
    fn __new__(wraps: Py<PyAny>) -> Self {
        PyCounter { count: 0, wraps }
    }

    #[args(args = "*", kwargs = "**")]
    fn __call__(
        &mut self,
        py: Python<'_>,
        args: &PyTuple,
        kwargs: Option<&PyDict>,
    ) -> PyResult<Py<PyAny>> {
        self.count += 1;
        let name = self.wraps.getattr(py, "__name__")?;

        println!("{} has been called {} time(s).", name, self.count);

        // After doing something, we finally forward the call to the wrapped function
        let ret = self.wraps.call(py, args, kwargs)?;

        // We could do something with the return value of
        // the function before returning it
        Ok(ret)
    }
}

#[pymodule]
pub fn decorator(_py: Python<'_>, module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    module.add_class::<PyCounter>()?;
    Ok(())
}

Python code:

@Counter
def say_hello():
    print("hello")


say_hello()
say_hello()
say_hello()
say_hello()

assert say_hello.count == 4

Output:

say_hello has been called 1 time(s).
hello
say_hello has been called 2 time(s).
hello
say_hello has been called 3 time(s).
hello
say_hello has been called 4 time(s).
hello

Pure Python implementation

A Python implementation of this looks similar to the Rust version:

class Counter:
    def __init__(self, wraps):
        self.count = 0
        self.wraps = wraps

    def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.count += 1
        print(f"{self.wraps.__name__} has been called {self.count} time(s)")
        self.wraps(*args, **kwargs)

Note that it can also be implemented as a higher order function:

def Counter(wraps):
    count = 0
    def call(*args, **kwargs):
        nonlocal count
        count += 1
        print(f"{wraps.__name__} has been called {count} time(s)")
        return wraps(*args, **kwargs)
    return call

Type Conversions

In this portion of the guide we'll talk about the mapping of Python types to Rust types offered by PyO3, as well as the traits available to perform conversions between them.

Mapping of Rust types to Python types

When writing functions callable from Python (such as a #[pyfunction] or in a #[pymethods] block), the trait FromPyObject is required for function arguments, and IntoPy<PyObject> is required for function return values.

Consult the tables in the following section to find the Rust types provided by PyO3 which implement these traits.

Argument Types

When accepting a function argument, it is possible to either use Rust library types or PyO3's Python-native types. (See the next section for discussion on when to use each.)

The table below contains the Python type and the corresponding function argument types that will accept them:

PythonRustRust (Python-native)
object-&PyAny
strString, Cow<str>, &str, OsString, PathBuf&PyUnicode
bytesVec<u8>, &[u8]&PyBytes
boolbool&PyBool
intAny integer type (i32, u32, usize, etc)&PyLong
floatf32, f64&PyFloat
complexnum_complex::Complex1&PyComplex
list[T]Vec<T>&PyList
dict[K, V]HashMap<K, V>, BTreeMap<K, V>, hashbrown::HashMap<K, V>2, indexmap::IndexMap<K, V>3&PyDict
tuple[T, U](T, U), Vec<T>&PyTuple
set[T]HashSet<T>, BTreeSet<T>, hashbrown::HashSet<T>2&PySet
frozenset[T]HashSet<T>, BTreeSet<T>, hashbrown::HashSet<T>2&PyFrozenSet
bytearrayVec<u8>&PyByteArray
slice-&PySlice
type-&PyType
module-&PyModule
datetime.datetime-&PyDateTime
datetime.date-&PyDate
datetime.time-&PyTime
datetime.tzinfo-&PyTzInfo
datetime.timedelta-&PyDelta
typing.Optional[T]Option<T>-
typing.Sequence[T]Vec<T>&PySequence
typing.Mapping[K, V]HashMap<K, V>, BTreeMap<K, V>, hashbrown::HashMap<K, V>2, indexmap::IndexMap<K, V>3&PyMapping
typing.Iterator[Any]-&PyIterator
typing.Union[...]See #[derive(FromPyObject)]-

There are also a few special types related to the GIL and Rust-defined #[pyclass]es which may come in useful:

WhatDescription
PythonA GIL token, used to pass to PyO3 constructors to prove ownership of the GIL
Py<T>A Python object isolated from the GIL lifetime. This can be sent to other threads.
PyObjectAn alias for Py<PyAny>
&PyCell<T>A #[pyclass] value owned by Python.
PyRef<T>A #[pyclass] borrowed immutably.
PyRefMut<T>A #[pyclass] borrowed mutably.

For more detail on accepting #[pyclass] values as function arguments, see the section of this guide on Python Classes.

Using Rust library types vs Python-native types

Using Rust library types as function arguments will incur a conversion cost compared to using the Python-native types. Using the Python-native types is almost zero-cost (they just require a type check similar to the Python builtin function isinstance()).

However, once that conversion cost has been paid, the Rust standard library types offer a number of benefits:

  • You can write functionality in native-speed Rust code (free of Python's runtime costs).
  • You get better interoperability with the rest of the Rust ecosystem.
  • You can use Python::allow_threads to release the Python GIL and let other Python threads make progress while your Rust code is executing.
  • You also benefit from stricter type checking. For example you can specify Vec<i32>, which will only accept a Python list containing integers. The Python-native equivalent, &PyList, would accept a Python list containing Python objects of any type.

For most PyO3 usage the conversion cost is worth paying to get these benefits. As always, if you're not sure it's worth it in your case, benchmark it!

Returning Rust values to Python

When returning values from functions callable from Python, Python-native types (&PyAny, &PyDict etc.) can be used with zero cost.

Because these types are references, in some situations the Rust compiler may ask for lifetime annotations. If this is the case, you should use Py<PyAny>, Py<PyDict> etc. instead - which are also zero-cost. For all of these Python-native types T, Py<T> can be created from T with an .into() conversion.

If your function is fallible, it should return PyResult<T> or Result<T, E> where E implements From<E> for PyErr. This will raise a Python exception if the Err variant is returned.

Finally, the following Rust types are also able to convert to Python as return values:

Rust typeResulting Python Type
Stringstr
&strstr
boolbool
Any integer type (i32, u32, usize, etc)int
f32, f64float
Option<T>Optional[T]
(T, U)Tuple[T, U]
Vec<T>List[T]
HashMap<K, V>Dict[K, V]
BTreeMap<K, V>Dict[K, V]
HashSet<T>Set[T]
BTreeSet<T>Set[T]
&PyCell<T: PyClass>T
PyRef<T: PyClass>T
PyRefMut<T: PyClass>T
1

Requires the num-complex optional feature.

2

Requires the hashbrown optional feature.

3

Requires the indexmap optional feature.

Conversion traits

PyO3 provides some handy traits to convert between Python types and Rust types.

.extract() and the FromPyObject trait

The easiest way to convert a Python object to a Rust value is using .extract(). It returns a PyResult with a type error if the conversion fails, so usually you will use something like

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyList;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let list = PyList::new(py, b"foo");
let v: Vec<i32> = list.extract()?;
        assert_eq!(&v, &[102, 111, 111]);
        Ok(())
    })
}

This method is available for many Python object types, and can produce a wide variety of Rust types, which you can check out in the implementor list of FromPyObject.

FromPyObject is also implemented for your own Rust types wrapped as Python objects (see the chapter about classes). There, in order to both be able to operate on mutable references and satisfy Rust's rules of non-aliasing mutable references, you have to extract the PyO3 reference wrappers PyRef and PyRefMut. They work like the reference wrappers of std::cell::RefCell and ensure (at runtime) that Rust borrows are allowed.

Deriving FromPyObject

FromPyObject can be automatically derived for many kinds of structs and enums if the member types themselves implement FromPyObject. This even includes members with a generic type T: FromPyObject. Derivation for empty enums, enum variants and structs is not supported.

Deriving FromPyObject for structs

The derivation generates code that will attempt to access the attribute my_string on the Python object, i.e. obj.getattr("my_string"), and call extract() on the attribute.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[derive(FromPyObject)]
struct RustyStruct {
    my_string: String,
}

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        let module = PyModule::from_code(
            py,
            "class Foo:
            def __init__(self):
                self.my_string = 'test'",
            "",
            "",
        )?;

        let class = module.getattr("Foo")?;
        let instance = class.call0()?;
        let rustystruct: RustyStruct = instance.extract()?;
        assert_eq!(rustystruct.my_string, "test");
        Ok(())
    })
}

By setting the #[pyo3(item)] attribute on the field, PyO3 will attempt to extract the value by calling the get_item method on the Python object.

use pyo3::prelude::*;


#[derive(FromPyObject)]
struct RustyStruct {
    #[pyo3(item)]
    my_string: String,
}

use pyo3::types::PyDict;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        let dict = PyDict::new(py);
        dict.set_item("my_string", "test")?;

        let rustystruct: RustyStruct = dict.extract()?;
        assert_eq!(rustystruct.my_string, "test");
        Ok(())
    })
}

The argument passed to getattr and get_item can also be configured:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[derive(FromPyObject)]
struct RustyStruct {
    #[pyo3(item("key"))]
    string_in_mapping: String,
    #[pyo3(attribute("name"))]
    string_attr: String,
}

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        let module = PyModule::from_code(
            py,
            "class Foo(dict):
            def __init__(self):
                self.name = 'test'
                self['key'] = 'test2'",
            "",
            "",
        )?;

        let class = module.getattr("Foo")?;
        let instance = class.call0()?;
        let rustystruct: RustyStruct = instance.extract()?;
		assert_eq!(rustystruct.string_attr, "test");
        assert_eq!(rustystruct.string_in_mapping, "test2");

        Ok(())
    })
}

This tries to extract string_attr from the attribute name and string_in_mapping from a mapping with the key "key". The arguments for attribute are restricted to non-empty string literals while item can take any valid literal that implements ToBorrowedObject.

Deriving FromPyObject for tuple structs

Tuple structs are also supported but do not allow customizing the extraction. The input is always assumed to be a Python tuple with the same length as the Rust type, the nth field is extracted from the nth item in the Python tuple.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[derive(FromPyObject)]
struct RustyTuple(String, String);

use pyo3::types::PyTuple;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        let tuple = PyTuple::new(py, vec!["test", "test2"]);

        let rustytuple: RustyTuple = tuple.extract()?;
        assert_eq!(rustytuple.0, "test");
        assert_eq!(rustytuple.1, "test2");

        Ok(())
    })
}

Tuple structs with a single field are treated as wrapper types which are described in the following section. To override this behaviour and ensure that the input is in fact a tuple, specify the struct as

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[derive(FromPyObject)]
struct RustyTuple((String,));

use pyo3::types::PyTuple;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        let tuple = PyTuple::new(py, vec!["test"]);

        let rustytuple: RustyTuple = tuple.extract()?;
        assert_eq!((rustytuple.0).0, "test");

        Ok(())
    })
}

Deriving FromPyObject for wrapper types

The pyo3(transparent) attribute can be used on structs with exactly one field. This results in extracting directly from the input object, i.e. obj.extract(), rather than trying to access an item or attribute. This behaviour is enabled per default for newtype structs and tuple-variants with a single field.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[derive(FromPyObject)]
struct RustyTransparentTupleStruct(String);

#[derive(FromPyObject)]
#[pyo3(transparent)]
struct RustyTransparentStruct {
    inner: String,
}

use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        let s = PyString::new(py, "test");

        let tup: RustyTransparentTupleStruct = s.extract()?;
        assert_eq!(tup.0, "test");

        let stru: RustyTransparentStruct = s.extract()?;
        assert_eq!(stru.inner, "test");

        Ok(())
    })
}

Deriving FromPyObject for enums

The FromPyObject derivation for enums generates code that tries to extract the variants in the order of the fields. As soon as a variant can be extracted successfully, that variant is returned. This makes it possible to extract Python union types like str | int.

The same customizations and restrictions described for struct derivations apply to enum variants, i.e. a tuple variant assumes that the input is a Python tuple, and a struct variant defaults to extracting fields as attributes but can be configured in the same manner. The transparent attribute can be applied to single-field-variants.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[derive(FromPyObject)]
#[derive(Debug)]
enum RustyEnum<'a> {
    Int(usize), // input is a positive int
    String(String), // input is a string
    IntTuple(usize, usize), // input is a 2-tuple with positive ints
    StringIntTuple(String, usize), // input is a 2-tuple with String and int
    Coordinates3d { // needs to be in front of 2d
        x: usize,
        y: usize,
        z: usize,
    },
    Coordinates2d { // only gets checked if the input did not have `z`
        #[pyo3(attribute("x"))]
        a: usize,
        #[pyo3(attribute("y"))]
        b: usize,
    },
    #[pyo3(transparent)]
    CatchAll(&'a PyAny), // This extraction never fails
}

use pyo3::types::{PyBytes, PyString};
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        {
            let thing = 42_u8.to_object(py);
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum<'_> = thing.extract(py)?;

            assert_eq!(
                42,
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::Int(i) => i,
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }
        {
            let thing = PyString::new(py, "text");
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum<'_> = thing.extract()?;

            assert_eq!(
                "text",
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::String(i) => i,
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }
        {
            let thing = (32_u8, 73_u8).to_object(py);
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum<'_> = thing.extract(py)?;

            assert_eq!(
                (32, 73),
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::IntTuple(i, j) => (i, j),
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }
        {
            let thing = ("foo", 73_u8).to_object(py);
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum<'_> = thing.extract(py)?;

            assert_eq!(
                (String::from("foo"), 73),
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::StringIntTuple(i, j) => (i, j),
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }
        {
            let module = PyModule::from_code(
                py,
                "class Foo(dict):
            def __init__(self):
                self.x = 0
                self.y = 1
                self.z = 2",
                "",
                "",
            )?;

            let class = module.getattr("Foo")?;
            let instance = class.call0()?;
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum<'_> = instance.extract()?;

            assert_eq!(
                (0, 1, 2),
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::Coordinates3d { x, y, z } => (x, y, z),
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }

        {
            let module = PyModule::from_code(
                py,
                "class Foo(dict):
            def __init__(self):
                self.x = 3
                self.y = 4",
                "",
                "",
            )?;

            let class = module.getattr("Foo")?;
            let instance = class.call0()?;
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum<'_> = instance.extract()?;

            assert_eq!(
                (3, 4),
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::Coordinates2d { a, b } => (a, b),
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }

        {
            let thing = PyBytes::new(py, b"text");
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum<'_> = thing.extract()?;

            assert_eq!(
                b"text",
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::CatchAll(i) => i.downcast::<PyBytes>()?.as_bytes(),
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }
        Ok(())
    })
}

If none of the enum variants match, a PyTypeError containing the names of the tested variants is returned. The names reported in the error message can be customized through the #[pyo3(annotation = "name")] attribute, e.g. to use conventional Python type names:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[derive(FromPyObject)]
#[derive(Debug)]
enum RustyEnum {
    #[pyo3(transparent, annotation = "str")]
    String(String),
    #[pyo3(transparent, annotation = "int")]
    Int(isize),
}

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        {
            let thing = 42_u8.to_object(py);
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum = thing.extract(py)?;

            assert_eq!(
                42,
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::Int(i) => i,
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }

        {
            let thing = "foo".to_object(py);
            let rust_thing: RustyEnum = thing.extract(py)?;

            assert_eq!(
                "foo",
                match rust_thing {
                    RustyEnum::String(i) => i,
                    other => unreachable!("Error extracting: {:?}", other),
                }
            );
        }

        {
            let thing = b"foo".to_object(py);
            let error = thing.extract::<RustyEnum>(py).unwrap_err();
            assert!(error.is_instance_of::<pyo3::exceptions::PyTypeError>(py));
        }

        Ok(())
    })
}

If the input is neither a string nor an integer, the error message will be: "'<INPUT_TYPE>' cannot be converted to 'str | int'".

#[derive(FromPyObject)] Container Attributes

  • pyo3(transparent)
    • extract the field directly from the object as obj.extract() instead of get_item() or getattr()
    • Newtype structs and tuple-variants are treated as transparent per default.
    • only supported for single-field structs and enum variants
  • pyo3(annotation = "name")
    • changes the name of the failed variant in the generated error message in case of failure.
    • e.g. pyo3("int") reports the variant's type as int.
    • only supported for enum variants

#[derive(FromPyObject)] Field Attributes

  • pyo3(attribute), pyo3(attribute("name"))
    • retrieve the field from an attribute, possibly with a custom name specified as an argument
    • argument must be a string-literal.
  • pyo3(item), pyo3(item("key"))
    • retrieve the field from a mapping, possibly with the custom key specified as an argument.
    • can be any literal that implements ToBorrowedObject
  • pyo3(from_py_with = "...")
    • apply a custom function to convert the field from Python the desired Rust type.
    • the argument must be the name of the function as a string.
    • the function signature must be fn(&PyAny) -> PyResult<T> where T is the Rust type of the argument.

IntoPy<T>

This trait defines the to-python conversion for a Rust type. It is usually implemented as IntoPy<PyObject>, which is the trait needed for returning a value from #[pyfunction] and #[pymethods].

All types in PyO3 implement this trait, as does a #[pyclass] which doesn't use extends.

Occasionally you may choose to implement this for custom types which are mapped to Python types without having a unique python type.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

struct MyPyObjectWrapper(PyObject);

impl IntoPy<PyObject> for MyPyObjectWrapper {
    fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject {
        self.0
    }
}
}

The ToPyObject trait

ToPyObject is a conversion trait that allows various objects to be converted into PyObject. IntoPy<PyObject> serves the same purpose, except that it consumes self.

Python Exceptions

Defining a new exception

You can use the create_exception! macro to define a new exception type:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::create_exception;

create_exception!(module, MyError, pyo3::exceptions::PyException);
}
  • module is the name of the containing module.
  • MyError is the name of the new exception type.

For example:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::create_exception;
use pyo3::types::IntoPyDict;
use pyo3::exceptions::PyException;

create_exception!(mymodule, CustomError, PyException);

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let ctx = [("CustomError", py.get_type::<CustomError>())].into_py_dict(py);
    pyo3::py_run!(py, *ctx, "assert str(CustomError) == \"<class 'mymodule.CustomError'>\"");
    pyo3::py_run!(py, *ctx, "assert CustomError('oops').args == ('oops',)");
});
}

When using PyO3 to create an extension module, you can add the new exception to the module like this, so that it is importable from Python:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyModule;
use pyo3::exceptions::PyException;

pyo3::create_exception!(mymodule, CustomError, PyException);

#[pymodule]
fn mymodule(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    // ... other elements added to module ...
    m.add("CustomError", py.get_type::<CustomError>())?;

    Ok(())
}

}

Raising an exception

To raise an exception from pyfunctions and pymethods, you should return an Err(PyErr). If returned to Python code, this PyErr will then be raised as a Python exception. Many PyO3 APIs also return PyResult.

If a Rust type exists for the exception, then it is possible to use the new_err method. For example, each standard exception defined in the pyo3::exceptions module has a corresponding Rust type and exceptions defined by create_exception! and import_exception! macro have Rust types as well.

use pyo3::exceptions::PyZeroDivisionError;
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyfunction]
fn divide(a: i32, b: i32) -> PyResult<i32> {
    match a.checked_div(b) {
        Some(q) => Ok(q),
        None => Err(PyZeroDivisionError::new_err("division by zero")),
    }
}

fn main(){
	Python::with_gil(|py|{
		let fun = pyo3::wrap_pyfunction!(divide, py).unwrap();
		fun.call1((1,0)).unwrap_err();
		fun.call1((1,1)).unwrap();
	});
}

You can manually write and fetch errors in the Python interpreter's global state:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::{Python, PyErr};
use pyo3::exceptions::PyTypeError;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    PyTypeError::new_err("Error").restore(py);
    assert!(PyErr::occurred(py));
    drop(PyErr::fetch(py));
});
}

If you already have a Python exception object, you can use PyErr::from_value to create a PyErr from it.

Checking exception types

Python has an isinstance method to check an object's type. In PyO3 every object has the PyAny::is_instance and PyAny::is_instance_of methods which do the same thing.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::Python;
use pyo3::types::{PyBool, PyList};

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    assert!(PyBool::new(py, true).is_instance_of::<PyBool>().unwrap());
    let list = PyList::new(py, &[1, 2, 3, 4]);
    assert!(!list.is_instance_of::<PyBool>().unwrap());
    assert!(list.is_instance_of::<PyList>().unwrap());
});
}

To check the type of an exception, you can similarly do:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::exceptions::PyTypeError;
use pyo3::prelude::*;
Python::with_gil(|py| {
let err = PyTypeError::new_err(());
err.is_instance_of::<PyTypeError>(py);
});
}

Handling Rust errors

The vast majority of operations in this library will return PyResult<T>, which is an alias for the type Result<T, PyErr>.

A PyErr represents a Python exception. Errors within the PyO3 library are also exposed as Python exceptions.

If your code has a custom error type, adding an implementation of std::convert::From<MyError> for PyErr is usually enough. PyO3 will then automatically convert your error to a Python exception when needed.

The following code snippet defines a Rust error named CustomIOError. In its From<CustomIOError> for PyErr implementation it returns a PyErr representing Python's OSError.

use pyo3::exceptions::PyOSError;
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use std::fmt;

#[derive(Debug)]
struct CustomIOError;

impl std::error::Error for CustomIOError {}

impl fmt::Display for CustomIOError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "Oh no!")
    }
}

impl std::convert::From<CustomIOError> for PyErr {
    fn from(err: CustomIOError) -> PyErr {
        PyOSError::new_err(err.to_string())
    }
}

pub struct Connection { /* ... */}

fn bind(addr: String) -> Result<Connection, CustomIOError> {
    if &addr == "0.0.0.0"{
        Err(CustomIOError)
    } else {
        Ok(Connection{ /* ... */})
    }
}

#[pyfunction]
fn connect(s: String) -> Result<(), CustomIOError> {
    bind(s)?;
    Ok(())
}

fn main() {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let fun = pyo3::wrap_pyfunction!(connect, py).unwrap();
        let err = fun.call1(("0.0.0.0",)).unwrap_err();
        assert!(err.is_instance_of::<PyOSError>(py));
    });
}

This has been implemented for most of Rust's standard library errors, so that you can use the ? ("try") operator with them. The following code snippet will raise a ValueError in Python if String::parse() returns an error.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn parse_int(s: String) -> PyResult<usize> {
    Ok(s.parse::<usize>()?)
}

use pyo3::exceptions::PyValueError;

fn main() {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        assert_eq!(parse_int(String::from("1")).unwrap(), 1);
        assert_eq!(parse_int(String::from("1337")).unwrap(), 1337);

        assert!(parse_int(String::from("-1"))
            .unwrap_err()
            .is_instance_of::<PyValueError>(py));
        assert!(parse_int(String::from("foo"))
            .unwrap_err()
            .is_instance_of::<PyValueError>(py));
        assert!(parse_int(String::from("13.37"))
            .unwrap_err()
            .is_instance_of::<PyValueError>(py));
    })
}

If lazy construction of the Python exception instance is desired, the PyErrArguments trait can be implemented. In that case, actual exception argument creation is delayed until the PyErr is needed.

Using exceptions defined in Python code

It is possible to use an exception defined in Python code as a native Rust type. The import_exception! macro allows importing a specific exception class and defines a Rust type for that exception.


#![allow(unused)]
#![allow(dead_code)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

mod io {
    pyo3::import_exception!(io, UnsupportedOperation);
}

fn tell(file: &PyAny) -> PyResult<u64> {
    match file.call_method0("tell") {
        Err(_) => Err(io::UnsupportedOperation::new_err("not supported: tell")),
        Ok(x) => x.extract::<u64>(),
    }
}

}

pyo3::exceptions defines exceptions for several standard library modules.

Calling Python in Rust code

This chapter of the guide documents some ways to interact with Python code from Rust:

  • How to call Python functions
  • How to execute existing Python code

Calling Python functions

Any Python-native object reference (such as &PyAny, &PyList, or &PyCell<MyClass>) can be used to call Python functions.

PyO3 offers two APIs to make function calls:

  • call - call any callable Python object.
  • call_method - call a method on the Python object.

Both of these APIs take args and kwargs arguments (for positional and keyword arguments respectively). There are variants for less complex calls:

For convenience the Py<T> smart pointer also exposes these same six API methods, but needs a Python token as an additional first argument to prove the GIL is held.

The example below calls a Python function behind a PyObject (aka Py<PyAny>) reference:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyTuple;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let arg1 = "arg1";
    let arg2 = "arg2";
    let arg3 = "arg3";

    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let fun: Py<PyAny> = PyModule::from_code(
            py,
            "def example(*args, **kwargs):
                if args != ():
                    print('called with args', args)
                if kwargs != {}:
                    print('called with kwargs', kwargs)
                if args == () and kwargs == {}:
                    print('called with no arguments')",
            "",
            "",
        )?.getattr("example")?.into();

        // call object without empty arguments
        fun.call0(py)?;

        // call object with PyTuple
        let args = PyTuple::new(py, &[arg1, arg2, arg3]);
        fun.call1(py, args)?;

        // pass arguments as rust tuple
        let args = (arg1, arg2, arg3);
        fun.call1(py, args)?;
        Ok(())
    })
}

Creating keyword arguments

For the call and call_method APIs, kwargs can be None or Some(&PyDict). You can use the IntoPyDict trait to convert other dict-like containers, e.g. HashMap or BTreeMap, as well as tuples with up to 10 elements and Vecs where each element is a two-element tuple.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::IntoPyDict;
use std::collections::HashMap;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let key1 = "key1";
    let val1 = 1;
    let key2 = "key2";
    let val2 = 2;

    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let fun: Py<PyAny> = PyModule::from_code(
            py,
            "def example(*args, **kwargs):
                if args != ():
                    print('called with args', args)
                if kwargs != {}:
                    print('called with kwargs', kwargs)
                if args == () and kwargs == {}:
                    print('called with no arguments')",
            "",
            "",
        )?.getattr("example")?.into();


        // call object with PyDict
        let kwargs = [(key1, val1)].into_py_dict(py);
        fun.call(py, (), Some(kwargs))?;

        // pass arguments as Vec
        let kwargs = vec![(key1, val1), (key2, val2)];
        fun.call(py, (), Some(kwargs.into_py_dict(py)))?;

        // pass arguments as HashMap
        let mut kwargs = HashMap::<&str, i32>::new();
        kwargs.insert(key1, 1);
        fun.call(py, (), Some(kwargs.into_py_dict(py)))?;

        Ok(())
   })
}

Executing existing Python code

If you already have some existing Python code that you need to execute from Rust, the following FAQs can help you select the right PyO3 functionality for your situation:

Want to access Python APIs? Then use PyModule::import.

Pymodule::import can be used to get handle to a Python module from Rust. You can use this to import and use any Python module available in your environment.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let builtins = PyModule::import(py, "builtins")?;
        let total: i32 = builtins.getattr("sum")?.call1((vec![1, 2, 3],))?.extract()?;
        assert_eq!(total, 6);
        Ok(())
    })
}

Want to run just an expression? Then use eval.

Python::eval is a method to execute a Python expression and return the evaluated value as a &PyAny object.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn main() -> Result<(), ()> {
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let result = py.eval("[i * 10 for i in range(5)]", None, None).map_err(|e| {
        e.print_and_set_sys_last_vars(py);
    })?;
    let res: Vec<i64> = result.extract().unwrap();
    assert_eq!(res, vec![0, 10, 20, 30, 40]);
    Ok(())
})
}

Want to run statements? Then use run.

Python::run is a method to execute one or more Python statements. This method returns nothing (like any Python statement), but you can get access to manipulated objects via the locals dict.

You can also use the py_run! macro, which is a shorthand for Python::run. Since py_run! panics on exceptions, we recommend you use this macro only for quickly testing your Python extensions.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::{PyCell, py_run};

fn main() {
#[pyclass]
struct UserData {
    id: u32,
    name: String,
}

#[pymethods]
impl UserData {
    fn as_tuple(&self) -> (u32, String) {
        (self.id, self.name.clone())
    }

    fn __repr__(&self) -> PyResult<String> {
        Ok(format!("User {}(id: {})", self.name, self.id))
    }
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let userdata = UserData {
        id: 34,
        name: "Yu".to_string(),
    };
    let userdata = PyCell::new(py, userdata).unwrap();
    let userdata_as_tuple = (34, "Yu");
    py_run!(py, userdata userdata_as_tuple, r#"
assert repr(userdata) == "User Yu(id: 34)"
assert userdata.as_tuple() == userdata_as_tuple
    "#);
})
}

You have a Python file or code snippet? Then use PyModule::from_code.

PyModule::from_code can be used to generate a Python module which can then be used just as if it was imported with PyModule::import.

Warning: This will compile and execute code. Never pass untrusted code to this function!

use pyo3::{prelude::*, types::{IntoPyDict, PyModule}};

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let activators = PyModule::from_code(py, r#"
def relu(x):
    """see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rectifier_(neural_networks)"""
    return max(0.0, x)

def leaky_relu(x, slope=0.01):
    return x if x >= 0 else x * slope
    "#, "activators.py", "activators")?;

    let relu_result: f64 = activators.getattr("relu")?.call1((-1.0,))?.extract()?;
    assert_eq!(relu_result, 0.0);

    let kwargs = [("slope", 0.2)].into_py_dict(py);
    let lrelu_result: f64 = activators
        .getattr("leaky_relu")?.call((-1.0,), Some(kwargs))?
        .extract()?;
    assert_eq!(lrelu_result, -0.2);
   Ok(())
})
}

Include multiple Python files

You can include a file at compile time by using std::include_str macro.

Or you can load a file at runtime by using std::fs::read_to_string function.

Many Python files can be included and loaded as modules. If one file depends on another you must preserve correct order while declaring PyModule.

Example directory structure:

.
β”œβ”€β”€ Cargo.lock
β”œβ”€β”€ Cargo.toml
β”œβ”€β”€ python_app
β”‚Β Β  β”œβ”€β”€ app.py
β”‚Β Β  └── utils
β”‚Β Β      └── foo.py
└── src
    └── main.rs

python_app/app.py:

from utils.foo import bar


def run():
    return bar()

python_app/utils/foo.py:

def bar():
    return "baz"

The example below shows:

  • how to include content of app.py and utils/foo.py into your rust binary
  • how to call function run() (declared in app.py) that needs function imported from utils/foo.py

src/main.rs:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let py_foo = include_str!(concat!(env!("CARGO_MANIFEST_DIR"), "/python_app/utils/foo.py"));
    let py_app = include_str!(concat!(env!("CARGO_MANIFEST_DIR"), "/python_app/app.py"));
    let from_python = Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<Py<PyAny>> {
        PyModule::from_code(py, py_foo, "utils.foo", "utils.foo")?;
        let app: Py<PyAny> = PyModule::from_code(py, py_app, "", "")?
            .getattr("run")?
            .into();
        app.call0(py)
    });

    println!("py: {}", from_python?);
    Ok(())
}

The example below shows:

  • how to load content of app.py at runtime so that it sees its dependencies automatically
  • how to call function run() (declared in app.py) that needs function imported from utils/foo.py

It is recommended to use absolute paths because then your binary can be run from anywhere as long as your app.py is in the expected directory (in this example that directory is /usr/share/python_app).

src/main.rs:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyList;
use std::fs;
use std::path::Path;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let path = Path::new("/usr/share/python_app");
    let py_app = fs::read_to_string(path.join("app.py"))?;
    let from_python = Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<Py<PyAny>> {
        let syspath: &PyList = py.import("sys")?.getattr("path")?.downcast::<PyList>()?;
        syspath.insert(0, &path)?;
        let app: Py<PyAny> = PyModule::from_code(py, &py_app, "", "")?
            .getattr("run")?
            .into();
        app.call0(py)
    });

    println!("py: {}", from_python?);
    Ok(())
}

Need to use a context manager from Rust?

Use context managers by directly invoking __enter__ and __exit__.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyModule;

fn main() {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let custom_manager = PyModule::from_code(py, r#"
class House(object):
    def __init__(self, address):
        self.address = address
    def __enter__(self):
        print(f"Welcome to {self.address}!")
    def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback):
        if type:
            print(f"Sorry you had {type} trouble at {self.address}")
        else:
            print(f"Thank you for visiting {self.address}, come again soon!")

        "#, "house.py", "house").unwrap();

        let house_class = custom_manager.getattr("House").unwrap();
        let house = house_class.call1(("123 Main Street",)).unwrap();

        house.call_method0("__enter__").unwrap();

        let result = py.eval("undefined_variable + 1", None, None);

        // If the eval threw an exception we'll pass it through to the context manager.
        // Otherwise, __exit__  is called with empty arguments (Python "None").
        match result {
            Ok(_) => {
                let none = py.None();
                house.call_method1("__exit__", (&none, &none, &none)).unwrap();
            },
            Err(e) => {
                house.call_method1(
                    "__exit__",
                    (e.get_type(py), e.value(py), e.traceback(py))
                ).unwrap();
            }
        }
    })
}

GIL lifetimes, mutability and Python object types

On first glance, PyO3 provides a huge number of different types that can be used to wrap or refer to Python objects. This page delves into the details and gives an overview of their intended meaning, with examples when each type is best used.

Mutability and Rust types

Since Python has no concept of ownership, and works solely with boxed objects, any Python object can be referenced any number of times, and mutation is allowed from any reference.

The situation is helped a little by the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), which ensures that only one thread can use the Python interpreter and its API at the same time, while non-Python operations (system calls and extension code) can unlock the GIL. (See the section on parallelism for how to do that in PyO3.)

In PyO3, holding the GIL is modeled by acquiring a token of the type Python<'py>, which serves three purposes:

  • It provides some global API for the Python interpreter, such as eval.
  • It can be passed to functions that require a proof of holding the GIL, such as Py::clone_ref.
  • Its lifetime can be used to create Rust references that implicitly guarantee holding the GIL, such as &'py PyAny.

The latter two points are the reason why some APIs in PyO3 require the py: Python argument, while others don't.

The PyO3 API for Python objects is written such that instead of requiring a mutable Rust reference for mutating operations such as PyList::append, a shared reference (which, in turn, can only be created through Python<'_> with a GIL lifetime) is sufficient.

However, Rust structs wrapped as Python objects (called pyclass types) usually do need &mut access. Due to the GIL, PyO3 can guarantee thread-safe acces to them, but it cannot statically guarantee uniqueness of &mut references once an object's ownership has been passed to the Python interpreter, ensuring references is done at runtime using PyCell, a scheme very similar to std::cell::RefCell.

Object types

PyAny

Represents: a Python object of unspecified type, restricted to a GIL lifetime. Currently, PyAny can only ever occur as a reference, &PyAny.

Used: Whenever you want to refer to some Python object and will have the GIL for the whole duration you need to access that object. For example, intermediate values and arguments to pyfunctions or pymethods implemented in Rust where any type is allowed.

Many general methods for interacting with Python objects are on the PyAny struct, such as getattr, setattr, and .call.

Conversions:

For a &PyAny object reference any where the underlying object is a Python-native type such as a list:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyList;
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
let obj: &PyAny = PyList::empty(py);

// To &PyList with PyAny::downcast
let _: &PyList = obj.downcast()?;

// To Py<PyAny> (aka PyObject) with .into()
let _: Py<PyAny> = obj.into();

// To Py<PyList> with PyAny::extract
let _: Py<PyList> = obj.extract()?;
Ok(())
}).unwrap();
}

For a &PyAny object reference any where the underlying object is a #[pyclass]:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::{Py, Python, PyAny, PyResult};
#[pyclass] #[derive(Clone)] struct MyClass { }
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
let obj: &PyAny = Py::new(py, MyClass { })?.into_ref(py);

// To &PyCell<MyClass> with PyAny::downcast
let _: &PyCell<MyClass> = obj.downcast()?;

// To Py<PyAny> (aka PyObject) with .into()
let _: Py<PyAny> = obj.into();

// To Py<MyClass> with PyAny::extract
let _: Py<MyClass> = obj.extract()?;

// To MyClass with PyAny::extract, if MyClass: Clone
let _: MyClass = obj.extract()?;

// To PyRef<'_, MyClass> or PyRefMut<'_, MyClass> with PyAny::extract
let _: PyRef<'_, MyClass> = obj.extract()?;
let _: PyRefMut<'_, MyClass> = obj.extract()?;
Ok(())
}).unwrap();
}

PyTuple, PyDict, and many more

Represents: a native Python object of known type, restricted to a GIL lifetime just like PyAny.

Used: Whenever you want to operate with native Python types while holding the GIL. Like PyAny, this is the most convenient form to use for function arguments and intermediate values.

These types all implement Deref<Target = PyAny>, so they all expose the same methods which can be found on PyAny.

To see all Python types exposed by PyO3 you should consult the pyo3::types module.

Conversions:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyList;
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
let list = PyList::empty(py);

// Use methods from PyAny on all Python types with Deref implementation
let _ = list.repr()?;

// To &PyAny automatically with Deref implementation
let _: &PyAny = list;

// To &PyAny explicitly with .as_ref()
let _: &PyAny = list.as_ref();

// To Py<T> with .into() or Py::from()
let _: Py<PyList> = list.into();

// To PyObject with .into() or .to_object(py)
let _: PyObject = list.into();
Ok(())
}).unwrap();
}

Py<T> and PyObject

Represents: a GIL-independent reference to a Python object. This can be a Python native type (like PyTuple), or a pyclass type implemented in Rust. The most commonly-used variant, Py<PyAny>, is also known as PyObject.

Used: Whenever you want to carry around references to a Python object without caring about a GIL lifetime. For example, storing Python object references in a Rust struct that outlives the Python-Rust FFI boundary, or returning objects from functions implemented in Rust back to Python.

Can be cloned using Python reference counts with .clone().

Conversions:

For a Py<PyList>, the conversions are as below:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyList;
Python::with_gil(|py| {
let list: Py<PyList> = PyList::empty(py).into();

// To &PyList with Py::as_ref() (borrows from the Py)
let _: &PyList = list.as_ref(py);

let list_clone = list.clone(); // Because `.into_ref()` will consume `list`.
// To &PyList with Py::into_ref() (moves the pointer into PyO3's object storage)
let _: &PyList = list.into_ref(py);

let list = list_clone;
// To Py<PyAny> (aka PyObject) with .into()
let _: Py<PyAny> = list.into();
})
}

For a #[pyclass] struct MyClass, the conversions for Py<MyClass> are below:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
Python::with_gil(|py| {
#[pyclass] struct MyClass { }
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
let my_class: Py<MyClass> = Py::new(py, MyClass { })?;

// To &PyCell<MyClass> with Py::as_ref() (borrows from the Py)
let _: &PyCell<MyClass> = my_class.as_ref(py);

let my_class_clone = my_class.clone(); // Because `.into_ref()` will consume `my_class`.
// To &PyCell<MyClass> with Py::into_ref() (moves the pointer into PyO3's object storage)
let _: &PyCell<MyClass> = my_class.into_ref(py);

let my_class = my_class_clone.clone();
// To Py<PyAny> (aka PyObject) with .into_py(py)
let _: Py<PyAny> = my_class.into_py(py);

let my_class = my_class_clone;
// To PyRef<'_, MyClass> with Py::borrow or Py::try_borrow
let _: PyRef<'_, MyClass> = my_class.try_borrow(py)?;

// To PyRefMut<'_, MyClass> with Py::borrow_mut or Py::try_borrow_mut
let _: PyRefMut<'_, MyClass> = my_class.try_borrow_mut(py)?;
Ok(())
}).unwrap();
});
}

PyCell<SomeType>

Represents: a reference to a Rust object (instance of PyClass) which is wrapped in a Python object. The cell part is an analog to stdlib's RefCell to allow access to &mut references.

Used: for accessing pure-Rust API of the instance (members and functions taking &SomeType or &mut SomeType) while maintaining the aliasing rules of Rust references.

Like pyo3's Python native types, PyCell<T> implements Deref<Target = PyAny>, so it also exposes all of the methods on PyAny.

Conversions:

PyCell<T> can be used to access &T and &mut T via PyRef<T> and PyRefMut<T> respectively.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass] struct MyClass { }
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
let cell: &PyCell<MyClass> = PyCell::new(py, MyClass { })?;

// To PyRef<T> with .borrow() or .try_borrow()
let py_ref: PyRef<'_, MyClass> = cell.try_borrow()?;
let _: &MyClass = &*py_ref;
drop(py_ref);

// To PyRefMut<T> with .borrow_mut() or .try_borrow_mut()
let mut py_ref_mut: PyRefMut<'_, MyClass> = cell.try_borrow_mut()?;
let _: &mut MyClass = &mut *py_ref_mut;
Ok(())
}).unwrap();
}

PyCell<T> can also be accessed like a Python-native type.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass] struct MyClass { }
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
let cell: &PyCell<MyClass> = PyCell::new(py, MyClass { })?;

// Use methods from PyAny on PyCell<T> with Deref implementation
let _ = cell.repr()?;

// To &PyAny automatically with Deref implementation
let _: &PyAny = cell;

// To &PyAny explicitly with .as_ref()
let _: &PyAny = cell.as_ref();
Ok(())
}).unwrap();
}

PyRef<SomeType> and PyRefMut<SomeType>

Represents: reference wrapper types employed by PyCell to keep track of borrows, analog to Ref and RefMut used by RefCell.

Used: while borrowing a PyCell. They can also be used with .extract() on types like Py<T> and PyAny to get a reference quickly.

PyClass

This trait marks structs defined in Rust that are also usable as Python classes, usually defined using the #[pyclass] macro.

PyNativeType

This trait marks structs that mirror native Python types, such as PyList.

Parallelism

CPython has the infamous Global Interpreter Lock, which prevents several threads from executing Python bytecode in parallel. This makes threading in Python a bad fit for CPU-bound tasks and often forces developers to accept the overhead of multiprocessing.

In PyO3 parallelism can be easily achieved in Rust-only code. Let's take a look at our word-count example, where we have a search function that utilizes the rayon crate to count words in parallel.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
use pyo3::prelude::*;

// These traits let us use `par_lines` and `map`.
use rayon::str::ParallelString;
use rayon::iter::ParallelIterator;

/// Count the occurrences of needle in line, case insensitive
fn count_line(line: &str, needle: &str) -> usize {
    let mut total = 0;
    for word in line.split(' ') {
        if word == needle {
            total += 1;
        }
    }
    total
}

#[pyfunction]
fn search(contents: &str, needle: &str) -> usize {
    contents
        .par_lines()
        .map(|line| count_line(line, needle))
        .sum()
}
}

But let's assume you have a long running Rust function which you would like to execute several times in parallel. For the sake of example let's take a sequential version of the word count:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
fn count_line(line: &str, needle: &str) -> usize {
    let mut total = 0;
    for word in line.split(' ') {
        if word == needle {
            total += 1;
        }
    }
    total
}

fn search_sequential(contents: &str, needle: &str) -> usize {
    contents.lines().map(|line| count_line(line, needle)).sum()
}
}

To enable parallel execution of this function, the Python::allow_threads method can be used to temporarily release the GIL, thus allowing other Python threads to run. We then have a function exposed to the Python runtime which calls search_sequential inside a closure passed to Python::allow_threads to enable true parallelism:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn count_line(line: &str, needle: &str) -> usize {
    let mut total = 0;
    for word in line.split(' ') {
        if word == needle {
            total += 1;
        }
    }
    total
}

fn search_sequential(contents: &str, needle: &str) -> usize {
   contents.lines().map(|line| count_line(line, needle)).sum()
}
#[pyfunction]
fn search_sequential_allow_threads(py: Python<'_>, contents: &str, needle: &str) -> usize {
    py.allow_threads(|| search_sequential(contents, needle))
}
}

Now Python threads can use more than one CPU core, resolving the limitation which usually makes multi-threading in Python only good for IO-bound tasks:

from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor
from word_count import search_sequential_allow_threads

executor = ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=2)

future_1 = executor.submit(
    word_count.search_sequential_allow_threads, contents, needle
)
future_2 = executor.submit(
    word_count.search_sequential_allow_threads, contents, needle
)
result_1 = future_1.result()
result_2 = future_2.result()

Benchmark

Let's benchmark the word-count example to verify that we really did unlock parallelism with PyO3.

We are using pytest-benchmark to benchmark four word count functions:

  1. Pure Python version
  2. Rust parallel version
  3. Rust sequential version
  4. Rust sequential version executed twice with two Python threads

The benchmark script can be found here, and we can run nox in the word-count folder to benchmark these functions.

While the results of the benchmark of course depend on your machine, the relative results should be similar to this (mid 2020):

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- benchmark: 4 tests -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Name (time in ms)                                          Min                Max               Mean            StdDev             Median               IQR            Outliers       OPS            Rounds  Iterations
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
test_word_count_rust_parallel                           1.7315 (1.0)       4.6495 (1.0)       1.9972 (1.0)      0.4299 (1.0)       1.8142 (1.0)      0.2049 (1.0)         40;46  500.6943 (1.0)         375           1
test_word_count_rust_sequential                         7.3348 (4.24)     10.3556 (2.23)      8.0035 (4.01)     0.7785 (1.81)      7.5597 (4.17)     0.8641 (4.22)         26;5  124.9457 (0.25)        121           1
test_word_count_rust_sequential_twice_with_threads      7.9839 (4.61)     10.3065 (2.22)      8.4511 (4.23)     0.4709 (1.10)      8.2457 (4.55)     0.3927 (1.92)        17;17  118.3274 (0.24)        114           1
test_word_count_python_sequential                      27.3985 (15.82)    45.4527 (9.78)     28.9604 (14.50)    4.1449 (9.64)     27.5781 (15.20)    0.4638 (2.26)          3;5   34.5299 (0.07)         35           1
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

You can see that the Python threaded version is not much slower than the Rust sequential version, which means compared to an execution on a single CPU core the speed has doubled.

Debugging

Macros

PyO3's attributes (#[pyclass], #[pymodule], etc.) are procedural macros, which means that they rewrite the source of the annotated item. You can view the generated source with the following command, which also expands a few other things:

cargo rustc --profile=check -- -Z unstable-options --pretty=expanded > expanded.rs; rustfmt expanded.rs

(You might need to install rustfmt if you don't already have it.)

You can also debug classic !-macros by adding -Z trace-macros:

cargo rustc --profile=check -- -Z unstable-options --pretty=expanded -Z trace-macros > expanded.rs; rustfmt expanded.rs

See cargo expand for a more elaborate version of those commands.

Running with Valgrind

Valgrind is a tool to detect memory management bugs such as memory leaks.

You first need to install a debug build of Python, otherwise Valgrind won't produce usable results. In Ubuntu there's e.g. a python3-dbg package.

Activate an environment with the debug interpreter and recompile. If you're on Linux, use ldd with the name of your binary and check that you're linking e.g. libpython3.7d.so.1.0 instead of libpython3.7.so.1.0.

Download the suppressions file for cpython.

Run Valgrind with valgrind --suppressions=valgrind-python.supp ./my-command --with-options

Getting a stacktrace

The best start to investigate a crash such as an segmentation fault is a backtrace. You can set RUST_BACKTRACE=1 as an environment variable to get the stack trace on a panic!. Alternatively you can use a debugger such as gdb to explore the issue. Rust provides a wrapper, rust-gdb, which has pretty-printers for inspecting Rust variables. Since PyO3 uses cdylib for Python shared objects, it does not receive the pretty-print debug hooks in rust-gdb (rust-lang/rust#96365). The mentioned issue contains a workaround for enabling pretty-printers in this case.

  • Link against a debug build of python as described in the previous chapter
  • Run rust-gdb <my-binary>
  • Set a breakpoint (b) on rust_panic if you are investigating a panic!
  • Enter r to run
  • After the crash occurred, enter bt or bt full to print the stacktrace

Often it is helpful to run a small piece of Python code to exercise a section of Rust.

rust-gdb --args python -c "import my_package; my_package.sum_to_string(1, 2)"

Features Reference

PyO3 provides a number of Cargo features to customise functionality. This chapter of the guide provides detail on each of them.

By default, only the macros feature is enabled.

Features for extension module authors

extension-module

This feature is required when building a Python extension module using PyO3.

It tells PyO3's build script to skip linking against libpython.so on Unix platforms, where this must not be done.

See the building and distribution section for further detail.

abi3

This feature is used when building Python extension modules to create wheels which are compatible with multiple Python versions.

It restricts PyO3's API to a subset of the full Python API which is guaranteed by PEP 384 to be forwards-compatible with future Python versions.

See the building and distribution section for further detail.

The abi3-pyXY features

(abi3-py37, abi3-py38, abi3-py39, and abi3-py310)

These features are extensions of the abi3 feature to specify the exact minimum Python version which the multiple-version-wheel will support.

See the building and distribution section for further detail.

generate-import-lib

This experimental feature is used to generate import libraries for Python DLL for MinGW-w64 and MSVC (cross-)compile targets.

Enabling it allows to (cross-)compile extension modules to any Windows targets without having to install the Windows Python distribution files for the target.

See the building and distribution section for further detail.

Features for embedding Python in Rust

auto-initialize

This feature changes Python::with_gil and Python::acquire_gil to automatically initialize a Python interpreter (by calling prepare_freethreaded_python) if needed.

If you do not enable this feature, you should call pyo3::prepare_freethreaded_python() before attempting to call any other Python APIs.

Advanced Features

macros

This feature enables a dependency on the pyo3-macros crate, which provides the procedural macros portion of PyO3's API:

  • #[pymodule]
  • #[pyfunction]
  • #[pyclass]
  • #[pymethods]
  • #[derive(FromPyObject)]

It also provides the py_run! macro.

These macros require a number of dependencies which may not be needed by users who just need PyO3 for Python FFI. Disabling this feature enables faster builds for those users, as these dependencies will not be built if this feature is disabled.

This feature is enabled by default. To disable it, set default-features = false for the pyo3 entry in your Cargo.toml.

multiple-pymethods

This feature enables a dependency on inventory, which enables each #[pyclass] to have more than one #[pymethods] block.

Most users should only need a single #[pymethods] per #[pyclass]. In addition, not all platforms (e.g. Wasm) are supported by inventory. For this reason this feature is not enabled by default, meaning fewer dependencies and faster compilation for the majority of users.

See the #[pyclass] implementation details for more information.

pyproto

This feature enables the #[pyproto] macro, which is a deprecated alternative to #[pymethods] for defining magic methods such as __eq__.

nightly

The nightly feature needs the nightly Rust compiler. This allows PyO3 to use the auto_traits and negative_impls features to fix the Python::allow_threads function.

resolve-config

The resolve-config feature of the pyo3-build-config crate controls whether that crate's build script automatically resolves a Python interpreter / build configuration. This feature is primarily useful when building PyO3 itself. By default this feature is not enabled, meaning you can freely use pyo3-build-config as a standalone library to read or write PyO3 build configuration files or resolve metadata about a Python interpreter.

Optional Dependencies

These features enable conversions between Python types and types from other Rust crates, enabling easy access to the rest of the Rust ecosystem.

anyhow

Adds a dependency on anyhow. Enables a conversion from anyhow’s Error type to PyErr, for easy error handling.

eyre

Adds a dependency on eyre. Enables a conversion from eyre’s Report type to PyErr, for easy error handling.

hashbrown

Adds a dependency on hashbrown and enables conversions into its HashMap and HashSet types.

indexmap

Adds a dependency on indexmap and enables conversions into its IndexMap type.

num-bigint

Adds a dependency on num-bigint and enables conversions into its BigInt and BigUint types.

num-complex

Adds a dependency on num-complex and enables conversions into its Complex type.

serde

Enables (de)serialization of Py objects via serde. This allows to use #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize) on structs that hold references to #[pyclass] instances


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[cfg(feature = "serde")]
#[allow(dead_code)]
mod serde_only {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use serde::{Deserialize, Serialize};

#[pyclass]
#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
struct Permission {
    name: String
}

#[pyclass]
#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
struct User {
    username: String,
    permissions: Vec<Py<Permission>>
}
}
}

Memory Management

Rust and Python have very different notions of memory management. Rust has a strict memory model with concepts of ownership, borrowing, and lifetimes, where memory is freed at predictable points in program execution. Python has a looser memory model in which variables are reference-counted with shared, mutable state by default. A global interpreter lock (GIL) is needed to prevent race conditions, and a garbage collector is needed to break reference cycles. Memory in Python is freed eventually by the garbage collector, but not usually in a predictable way.

PyO3 bridges the Rust and Python memory models with two different strategies for accessing memory allocated on Python's heap from inside Rust. These are GIL-bound, or "owned" references, and GIL-independent Py<Any> smart pointers.

GIL-bound Memory

PyO3's GIL-bound, "owned references" (&PyAny etc.) make PyO3 more ergonomic to use by ensuring that their lifetime can never be longer than the duration the Python GIL is held. This means that most of PyO3's API can assume the GIL is held. (If PyO3 could not assume this, every PyO3 API would need to take a Python GIL token to prove that the GIL is held.) This allows us to write very simple and easy-to-understand programs like this:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let hello: &PyString = py.eval("\"Hello World!\"", None, None)?.extract()?;
    println!("Python says: {}", hello);
    Ok(())
})?;
Ok(())
}

Internally, calling Python::with_gil() or Python::acquire_gil() creates a GILPool which owns the memory pointed to by the reference. In the example above, the lifetime of the reference hello is bound to the GILPool. When the with_gil() closure ends or the GILGuard from acquire_gil() is dropped, the GILPool is also dropped and the Python reference counts of the variables it owns are decreased, releasing them to the Python garbage collector. Most of the time we don't have to think about this, but consider the following:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    for _ in 0..10 {
        let hello: &PyString = py.eval("\"Hello World!\"", None, None)?.extract()?;
        println!("Python says: {}", hello);
    }
    // There are 10 copies of `hello` on Python's heap here.
    Ok(())
})?;
Ok(())
}

We might assume that the hello variable's memory is freed at the end of each loop iteration, but in fact we create 10 copies of hello on Python's heap. This may seem surprising at first, but it is completely consistent with Rust's memory model. The hello variable is dropped at the end of each loop, but it is only a reference to the memory owned by the GILPool, and its lifetime is bound to the GILPool, not the for loop. The GILPool isn't dropped until the end of the with_gil() closure, at which point the 10 copies of hello are finally released to the Python garbage collector.

In general we don't want unbounded memory growth during loops! One workaround is to acquire and release the GIL with each iteration of the loop.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
for _ in 0..10 {
    Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
        let hello: &PyString = py.eval("\"Hello World!\"", None, None)?.extract()?;
        println!("Python says: {}", hello);
        Ok(())
    })?; // only one copy of `hello` at a time
}
Ok(())
}

It might not be practical or performant to acquire and release the GIL so many times. Another workaround is to work with the GILPool object directly, but this is unsafe.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    for _ in 0..10 {
        let pool = unsafe { py.new_pool() };
        let py = pool.python();
        let hello: &PyString = py.eval("\"Hello World!\"", None, None)?.extract()?;
        println!("Python says: {}", hello);
    }
    Ok(())
})?;
Ok(())
}

The unsafe method Python::new_pool allows you to create a nested GILPool from which you can retrieve a new py: Python GIL token. Variables created with this new GIL token are bound to the nested GILPool and will be released when the nested GILPool is dropped. Here, the nested GILPool is dropped at the end of each loop iteration, before the with_gil() closure ends.

When doing this, you must be very careful to ensure that once the GILPool is dropped you do not retain access to any owned references created after the GILPool was created. Read the documentation for Python::new_pool() for more information on safety.

GIL-independent Memory

Sometimes we need a reference to memory on Python's heap that can outlive the GIL. Python's Py<PyAny> is analogous to Rc<T>, but for variables whose memory is allocated on Python's heap. Cloning a Py<PyAny> increases its internal reference count just like cloning Rc<T>. The smart pointer can outlive the GIL from which it was created. It isn't magic, though. We need to reacquire the GIL to access the memory pointed to by the Py<PyAny>.

What happens to the memory when the last Py<PyAny> is dropped and its reference count reaches zero? It depends whether or not we are holding the GIL.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let hello: Py<PyString> = py.eval("\"Hello World!\"", None, None)?.extract()?;
    println!("Python says: {}", hello.as_ref(py));
    Ok(())
})?;
Ok(())
}

At the end of the Python::with_gil() closure hello is dropped, and then the GIL is dropped. Since hello is dropped while the GIL is still held by the current thread, its memory is released to the Python garbage collector immediately.

This example wasn't very interesting. We could have just used a GIL-bound &PyString reference. What happens when the last Py<Any> is dropped while we are not holding the GIL?

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
let hello: Py<PyString> = Python::with_gil(|py| {
    py.eval("\"Hello World!\"", None, None)?.extract()
})?;
// Do some stuff...
// Now sometime later in the program we want to access `hello`.
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    println!("Python says: {}", hello.as_ref(py));
});
// Now we're done with `hello`.
drop(hello); // Memory *not* released here.
// Sometime later we need the GIL again for something...
Python::with_gil(|py|
    // Memory for `hello` is released here.
()
);
Ok(())
}

When hello is dropped nothing happens to the pointed-to memory on Python's heap because nothing can happen if we're not holding the GIL. Fortunately, the memory isn't leaked. PyO3 keeps track of the memory internally and will release it the next time we acquire the GIL.

We can avoid the delay in releasing memory if we are careful to drop the Py<Any> while the GIL is held.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
let hello: Py<PyString> = Python::with_gil(|py| {
    py.eval("\"Hello World!\"", None, None)?.extract()
})?;
// Do some stuff...
// Now sometime later in the program:
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    println!("Python says: {}", hello.as_ref(py));
    drop(hello); // Memory released here.
});
Ok(())
}

We could also have used Py::into_ref(), which consumes self, instead of Py::as_ref(). But note that in addition to being slower than as_ref(), into_ref() binds the memory to the lifetime of the GILPool, which means that rather than being released immediately, the memory will not be released until the GIL is dropped.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;
fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
let hello: Py<PyString> = Python::with_gil(|py| {
    py.eval("\"Hello World!\"", None, None)?.extract()
})?;
// Do some stuff...
// Now sometime later in the program:
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    println!("Python says: {}", hello.into_ref(py));
    // Memory not released yet.
    // Do more stuff...
    // Memory released here at end of `with_gil()` closure.
});
Ok(())
}

Advanced topics

FFI

PyO3 exposes much of Python's C API through the ffi module.

The C API is naturally unsafe and requires you to manage reference counts, errors and specific invariants yourself. Please refer to the C API Reference Manual and The Rustonomicon before using any function from that API.

Memory Management

PyO3's &PyAny "owned references" and Py<PyAny> smart pointers are used to access memory stored in Python's heap. This memory sometimes lives for longer than expected because of differences in Rust and Python's memory models. See the chapter on memory management for more information.

Building and Distribution

This chapter of the guide goes into detail on how to build and distribute projects using PyO3. The way to achieve this is very different depending on whether the project is a Python module implemented in Rust, or a Rust binary embedding Python. For both types of project there are also common problems such as the Python version to build for and the linker arguments to use.

The material in this chapter is intended for users who have already read the PyO3 README. It covers in turn the choices that can be made for Python modules and for Rust binaries. There is also a section at the end about cross-compiling projects using PyO3.

There is an additional sub-chapter dedicated to supporting multiple Python versions.

Configuring the Python version

PyO3 uses a build script (backed by the pyo3-build-config crate) to determine the Python version and set the correct linker arguments. By default it will attempt to use the following in order:

  • Any active Python virtualenv.
  • The python executable (if it's a Python 3 interpreter).
  • The python3 executable.

You can override the Python interpreter by setting the PYO3_PYTHON environment variable, e.g. PYO3_PYTHON=python3.7, PYO3_PYTHON=/usr/bin/python3.9, or even a PyPy interpreter PYO3_PYTHON=pypy3.

Once the Python interpreter is located, pyo3-build-config executes it to query the information in the sysconfig module which is needed to configure the rest of the compilation.

To validate the configuration which PyO3 will use, you can run a compilation with the environment variable PYO3_PRINT_CONFIG=1 set. An example output of doing this is shown below:

$ PYO3_PRINT_CONFIG=1 cargo build
   Compiling pyo3 v0.14.1 (/home/david/dev/pyo3)
error: failed to run custom build command for `pyo3 v0.14.1 (/home/david/dev/pyo3)`

Caused by:
  process didn't exit successfully: `/home/david/dev/pyo3/target/debug/build/pyo3-7a8cf4fe22e959b7/build-script-build` (exit status: 101)
  --- stdout
  cargo:rerun-if-env-changed=PYO3_CROSS
  cargo:rerun-if-env-changed=PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR
  cargo:rerun-if-env-changed=PYO3_CROSS_PYTHON_VERSION
  cargo:rerun-if-env-changed=PYO3_PRINT_CONFIG

  -- PYO3_PRINT_CONFIG=1 is set, printing configuration and halting compile --
  implementation=CPython
  version=3.8
  shared=true
  abi3=false
  lib_name=python3.8
  lib_dir=/usr/lib
  executable=/usr/bin/python
  pointer_width=64
  build_flags=
  suppress_build_script_link_lines=false

Advanced: config files

If you save the above output config from PYO3_PRINT_CONFIG to a file, it is possible to manually override the contents and feed it back into PyO3 using the PYO3_CONFIG_FILE env var.

If your build environment is unusual enough that PyO3's regular configuration detection doesn't work, using a config file like this will give you the flexibility to make PyO3 work for you. To see the full set of options supported, see the documentation for the InterpreterConfig struct.

Building Python extension modules

Python extension modules need to be compiled differently depending on the OS (and architecture) that they are being compiled for. As well as multiple OSes (and architectures), there are also many different Python versions which are actively supported. Packages uploaded to PyPI usually want to upload prebuilt "wheels" covering many OS/arch/version combinations so that users on all these different platforms don't have to compile the package themselves. Package vendors can opt-in to the "abi3" limited Python API which allows their wheels to be used on multiple Python versions, reducing the number of wheels they need to compile, but restricts the functionality they can use.

There are many ways to go about this: it is possible to use cargo to build the extension module (along with some manual work, which varies with OS). The PyO3 ecosystem has two packaging tools, maturin and setuptools-rust, which abstract over the OS difference and also support building wheels for PyPI upload.

PyO3 has some Cargo features to configure projects for building Python extension modules:

  • The extension-module feature, which must be enabled when building Python extension modules.
  • The abi3 feature and its version-specific abi3-pyXY companions, which are used to opt-in to the limited Python API in order to support multiple Python versions in a single wheel.

This section describes each of these packaging tools before describiing how to build manually without them. It then proceeds with an explanation of the extension-module feature. Finally, there is a section describing PyO3's abi3 features.

Packaging tools

The PyO3 ecosystem has two main choices to abstract the process of developing Python extension modules:

  • maturin is a command-line tool to build, package and upload Python modules. It makes opinionated choices about project layout meaning it needs very little configuration. This makes it a great choice for users who are building a Python extension from scratch and don't need flexibility.
  • setuptools-rust is an add-on for setuptools which adds extra keyword arguments to the setup.py configuration file. It requires more configuration than maturin, however this gives additional flexibility for users adding Rust to an existing Python package that can't satisfy maturin's constraints.

Consult each project's documentation for full details on how to get started using them and how to upload wheels to PyPI.

There are also maturin-starter and setuptools-rust-starter examples in the PyO3 repository.

Manual builds

To build a PyO3-based Python extension manually, start by running cargo build as normal in a library project which uses PyO3's extension-module feature and has the cdylib crate type.

Once built, symlink (or copy) and rename the shared library from Cargo's target/ directory to your desired output directory:

  • on macOS, rename libyour_module.dylib to your_module.so.
  • on Windows, rename libyour_module.dll to your_module.pyd.
  • on Linux, rename libyour_module.so to your_module.so.

You can then open a Python shell in the output directory and you'll be able to run import your_module.

If you're packaging your library for redistribution, you should indicated the Python interpreter your library is compiled for by including the platform tag in its name. This prevents incompatible interpreters from trying to import your library. If you're compiling for PyPy you must include the platform tag, or PyPy will ignore the module.

See, as an example, Bazel rules to build PyO3 on Linux at https://github.com/TheButlah/rules_pyo3.

Platform tags

Rather than using just the .so or .pyd extension suggested above (depending on OS), uou can prefix the shared library extension with a platform tag to indicate the interpreter it is compatible with. You can query your interpreter's platform tag from the sysconfig module. Some example outputs of this are seen below:

# CPython 3.10 on macOS
.cpython-310-darwin.so

# PyPy 7.3 (Python 3.8) on Linux
$ python -c 'import sysconfig; print(sysconfig.get_config_var("EXT_SUFFIX"))'
.pypy38-pp73-x86_64-linux-gnu.so

So, for example, a valid module library name on CPython 3.10 for macOS is your_module.cpython-310-darwin.so, and its equivalent when compiled for PyPy 7.3 on Linux would be your_module.pypy38-pp73-x86_64-linux-gnu.so.

See PEP 3149 for more background on platform tags.

macOS

On macOS, because the extension-module feature disables linking to libpython (see the next section), some additional linker arguments need to be set. maturin and setuptools-rust both pass these arguments for PyO3 automatically, but projects using manual builds will need to set these directly in order to support macOS.

The easiest way to set the correct linker arguments is to add a build.rs with the following content:

fn main() {
  pyo3_build_config::add_extension_module_link_args();
}

Remember to also add pyo3-build-config to the build-dependencies section in Cargo.toml.

An alternative to using pyo3-build-config is add the following to a cargo configuration file (e.g. .cargo/config.toml):

[target.x86_64-apple-darwin]
rustflags = [
  "-C", "link-arg=-undefined",
  "-C", "link-arg=dynamic_lookup",
]

[target.aarch64-apple-darwin]
rustflags = [
  "-C", "link-arg=-undefined",
  "-C", "link-arg=dynamic_lookup",
]

The extension-module feature

PyO3's extension-module feature is used to disable linking to libpython on unix targets.

This is necessary because by default PyO3 links to libpython. This makes binaries, tests, and examples "just work". However, Python extensions on unix must not link to libpython for manylinux compliance.

The downside of not linking to libpython is that binaries, tests, and examples (which usually embed Python) will fail to build. If you have an extension module as well as other outputs in a single project, you need to use optional Cargo features to disable the extension-module when you're not building the extension module. See the FAQ for an example workaround.

Py_LIMITED_API/abi3

By default, Python extension modules can only be used with the same Python version they were compiled against. For example, an extension module built for Python 3.5 can't be imported in Python 3.8. PEP 384 introduced the idea of the limited Python API, which would have a stable ABI enabling extension modules built with it to be used against multiple Python versions. This is also known as abi3.

The advantage of building extension modules using the limited Python API is that package vendors only need to build and distribute a single copy (for each OS / architecture), and users can install it on all Python versions from the minimum version and up. The downside of this is that PyO3 can't use optimizations which rely on being compiled against a known exact Python version. It's up to you to decide whether this matters for your extension module. It's also possible to design your extension module such that you can distribute abi3 wheels but allow users compiling from source to benefit from additional optimizations - see the support for multiple python versions section of this guide, in particular the #[cfg(Py_LIMITED_API)] flag.

There are three steps involved in making use of abi3 when building Python packages as wheels:

  1. Enable the abi3 feature in pyo3. This ensures pyo3 only calls Python C-API functions which are part of the stable API, and on Windows also ensures that the project links against the correct shared object (no special behavior is required on other platforms):
[dependencies]
pyo3 = { git = "https://github.com/pyo3/pyo3", features = ["abi3"] }
  1. Ensure that the built shared objects are correctly marked as abi3. This is accomplished by telling your build system that you're using the limited API. maturin >= 0.9.0 and setuptools-rust >= 0.11.4 support abi3 wheels. See the corresponding PRs for more.

  2. Ensure that the .whl is correctly marked as abi3. For projects using setuptools, this is accomplished by passing --py-limited-api=cp3x (where x is the minimum Python version supported by the wheel, e.g. --py-limited-api=cp35 for Python 3.5) to setup.py bdist_wheel.

Minimum Python version for abi3

Because a single abi3 wheel can be used with many different Python versions, PyO3 has feature flags abi3-py37, abi3-py38, abi3-py39 etc. to set the minimum required Python version for your abi3 wheel. For example, if you set the abi3-py37 feature, your extension wheel can be used on all Python 3 versions from Python 3.7 and up. maturin and setuptools-rust will give the wheel a name like my-extension-1.0-cp37-abi3-manylinux2020_x86_64.whl.

As your extension module may be run with multiple different Python versions you may occasionally find you need to check the Python version at runtime to customize behavior. See the relevant section of this guide on supporting multiple Python versions at runtime.

PyO3 is only able to link your extension module to api3 version up to and including your host Python version. E.g., if you set abi3-py38 and try to compile the crate with a host of Python 3.7, the build will fail.

Note: If you set more that one of these api version feature flags the lowest version always wins. For example, with both abi3-py37 and abi3-py38 set, PyO3 would build a wheel which supports Python 3.7 and up.

Building abi3 extensions without a Python interpreter

As an advanced feature, you can build PyO3 wheel without calling Python interpreter with the environment variable PYO3_NO_PYTHON set. Also, if the build host Python interpreter is not found or is too old or otherwise unusable, PyO3 will still attempt to compile abi3 extension modules after displaying a warning message. On Unix-like systems this works unconditionally; on Windows you must also set the RUSTFLAGS environment variable to contain -L native=/path/to/python/libs so that the linker can find python3.lib.

If the python3.dll import library is not available, an experimental generate-import-lib crate feature may be enabled, and the required library will be created and used by PyO3 automatically.

Note: MSVC targets require LLVM binutils (llvm-dlltool) to be available in PATH for the automatic import library generation feature to work.

Missing features

Due to limitations in the Python API, there are a few pyo3 features that do not work when compiling for abi3. These are:

  • #[pyo3(text_signature = "...")] does not work on classes until Python 3.10 or greater.
  • The dict and weakref options on classes are not supported until Python 3.9 or greater.
  • The buffer API is not supported until Python 3.11 or greater.
  • Optimizations which rely on knowledge of the exact Python version compiled against.

Embedding Python in Rust

If you want to embed the Python interpreter inside a Rust program, there are two modes in which this can be done: dynamically and statically. We'll cover each of these modes in the following sections. Each of them affect how you must distribute your program. Instead of learning how to do this yourself, you might want to consider using a project like PyOxidizer to ship your application and all of its dependencies in a single file.

PyO3 automatically switches between the two linking modes depending on whether the Python distribution you have configured PyO3 to use (see above) contains a shared library or a static library. The static library is most often seen in Python distributions compiled from source without the --enable-shared configuration option. For example, this is the default for pyenv on macOS.

Dynamically embedding the Python interpreter

Embedding the Python interpreter dynamically is much easier than doing so statically. This is done by linking your program against a Python shared library (such as libpython.3.9.so on UNIX, or python39.dll on Windows). The implementation of the Python interpreter resides inside the shared library. This means that when the OS runs your Rust program it also needs to be able to find the Python shared library.

This mode of embedding works well for Rust tests which need access to the Python interpreter. It is also great for Rust software which is installed inside a Python virtualenv, because the virtualenv sets up appropriate environment variables to locate the correct Python shared library.

For distributing your program to non-technical users, you will have to consider including the Python shared library in your distribution as well as setting up wrapper scripts to set the right environment variables (such as LD_LIBRARY_PATH on UNIX, or PATH on Windows).

Note that PyPy cannot be embedded in Rust (or any other software). Support for this is tracked on the PyPy issue tracker.

Statically embedding the Python interpreter

Embedding the Python interpreter statically means including the contents of a Python static library directly inside your Rust binary. This means that to distribute your program you only need to ship your binary file: it contains the Python interpreter inside the binary!

On Windows static linking is almost never done, so Python distributions don't usually include a static library. The information below applies only to UNIX.

The Python static library is usually called libpython.a.

Static linking has a lot of complications, listed below. For these reasons PyO3 does not yet have first-class support for this embedding mode. See issue 416 on PyO3's Github for more information and to discuss any issues you encounter.

The auto-initialize feature is deliberately disabled when embedding the interpreter statically because this is often unintentionally done by new users to PyO3 running test programs. Trying out PyO3 is much easier using dynamic embedding.

The known complications are:

  • To import compiled extension modules (such as other Rust extension modules, or those written in C), your binary must have the correct linker flags set during compilation to export the original contents of libpython.a so that extensions can use them (e.g. -Wl,--export-dynamic).

  • The C compiler and flags which were used to create libpython.a must be compatible with your Rust compiler and flags, else you will experience compilation failures.

    Significantly different compiler versions may see errors like this:

    lto1: fatal error: bytecode stream in file 'rust-numpy/target/release/deps/libpyo3-6a7fb2ed970dbf26.rlib' generated with LTO version 6.0 instead of the expected 6.2
    

    Mismatching flags may lead to errors like this:

    /usr/bin/ld: /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/9/../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/libpython3.9.a(zlibmodule.o): relocation R_X86_64_32 against `.data' can not be used when making a PIE object; recompile with -fPIE
    

If you encounter these or other complications when linking the interpreter statically, discuss them on issue 416 on PyO3's Github. It is hoped that eventually that discussion will contain enough information and solutions that PyO3 can offer first-class support for static embedding.

Import your module when embedding the Python interpreter

When you run your Rust binary with an embedded interpreter, any #[pymodule] created modules won't be accessible to import unless added to a table called PyImport_Inittab before the embedded interpreter is initialized. This will cause Python statements in your embedded interpreter such as import your_new_module to fail. You can call the macro append_to_inittab with your module before initializing the Python interpreter to add the module function into that table. (The Python interpreter will be initialized by calling prepare_freethreaded_python, with_embedded_interpreter, or Python::with_gil with the auto-initialize feature enabled.)

Cross Compiling

Thanks to Rust's great cross-compilation support, cross-compiling using PyO3 is relatively straightforward. To get started, you'll need a few pieces of software:

  • A toolchain for your target.
  • The appropriate options in your Cargo .config for the platform you're targeting and the toolchain you are using.
  • A Python interpreter that's already been compiled for your target (optional when building "abi3" extension modules).
  • A Python interpreter that is built for your host and available through the PATH or setting the PYO3_PYTHON variable (optional when building "abi3" extension modules).

After you've obtained the above, you can build a cross-compiled PyO3 module by using Cargo's --target flag. PyO3's build script will detect that you are attempting a cross-compile based on your host machine and the desired target.

When cross-compiling, PyO3's build script cannot execute the target Python interpreter to query the configuration, so there are a few additional environment variables you may need to set:

  • PYO3_CROSS: If present this variable forces PyO3 to configure as a cross-compilation.
  • PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR: This variable can be set to the directory containing the target's libpython DSO and the associated _sysconfigdata*.py file for Unix-like targets, or the Python DLL import libraries for the Windows target. This variable is only needed when the output binary must link to libpython explicitly (e.g. when targeting Windows and Android or embedding a Python interpreter), or when it is absolutely required to get the interpreter configuration from _sysconfigdata*.py.
  • PYO3_CROSS_PYTHON_VERSION: Major and minor version (e.g. 3.9) of the target Python installation. This variable is only needed if PyO3 cannot determine the version to target from abi3-py3* features, or if PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR is not set, or if there are multiple versions of Python present in PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR.
  • PYO3_CROSS_PYTHON_IMPLEMENTATION: Python implementation name ("CPython" or "PyPy") of the target Python installation. CPython is assumed by default when this variable is not set, unless PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR is set for a Unix-like target and PyO3 can get the interpreter configuration from _sysconfigdata*.py.

An experimental pyo3 crate feature generate-import-lib enables the user to cross-compile extension modules for Windows targets without setting the PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR environment variable or providing any Windows Python library files. It uses an external python3-dll-a crate to generate import libraries for the Python DLL for MinGW-w64 and MSVC compile targets. Note: MSVC targets require LLVM binutils or MSVC build tools to be available on the host system. More specifically, python3-dll-a requires llvm-dlltool or lib.exe executable to be present in PATH when targeting *-pc-windows-msvc.

An example might look like the following (assuming your target's sysroot is at /home/pyo3/cross/sysroot and that your target is armv7):

export PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR="/home/pyo3/cross/sysroot/usr/lib"

cargo build --target armv7-unknown-linux-gnueabihf

If there are multiple python versions at the cross lib directory and you cannot set a more precise location to include both the libpython DSO and _sysconfigdata*.py files, you can set the required version:

export PYO3_CROSS_PYTHON_VERSION=3.8
export PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR="/home/pyo3/cross/sysroot/usr/lib"

cargo build --target armv7-unknown-linux-gnueabihf

Or another example with the same sys root but building for Windows:

export PYO3_CROSS_PYTHON_VERSION=3.9
export PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR="/home/pyo3/cross/sysroot/usr/lib"

cargo build --target x86_64-pc-windows-gnu

Any of the abi3-py3* features can be enabled instead of setting PYO3_CROSS_PYTHON_VERSION in the above examples.

PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR can often be omitted when cross compiling extension modules for Unix and macOS targets, or when cross compiling extension modules for Windows and the experimental generate-import-lib crate feature is enabled.

The following resources may also be useful for cross-compiling:

Supporting multiple Python versions

PyO3 supports all actively-supported Python 3 and PyPy versions. As much as possible, this is done internally to PyO3 so that your crate's code does not need to adapt to the differences between each version. However, as Python features grow and change between versions, PyO3 cannot a completely identical API for every Python version. This may require you to add conditional compilation to your crate or runtime checks for the Python version.

This section of the guide first introduces the pyo3-build-config crate, which you can use as a build-dependency to add additional #[cfg] flags which allow you to support multiple Python versions at compile-time.

Second, we'll show how to check the Python version at runtime. This can be useful when building for multiple versions with the abi3 feature, where the Python API compiled against is not always the same as the one in use.

Conditional compilation for different Python versions

The pyo3-build-config exposes multiple #[cfg] flags which can be used to conditionally compile code for a given Python version. PyO3 itself depends on this crate, so by using it you can be sure that you are configured correctly for the Python version PyO3 is building against.

This allows us to write code like the following

#[cfg(Py_3_7)]
fn function_only_supported_on_python_3_7_and_up() { }

#[cfg(not(Py_3_8))]
fn function_only_supported_before_python_3_8() { }

#[cfg(not(Py_LIMITED_API))]
fn function_incompatible_with_abi3_feature() { }

The following sections first show how to add these #[cfg] flags to your build process, and then cover some common patterns flags in a little more detail.

To see a full reference of all the #[cfg] flags provided, see the pyo3-build-cfg docs.

Using pyo3-build-config

You can use the #[cfg] flags in just two steps:

  1. Add pyo3-build-config it to your crate's build dependencies in Cargo.toml:

    [build-dependencies]
    pyo3-build-config = "git = "https://github.com/pyo3/pyo3""
    
  2. Add a build.rs file to your crate with the following contents:

    fn main() {
        // If you have an existing build.rs file, just add this line to it.
        pyo3_build_config::use_pyo3_cfgs();
    }
    

After these steps you are ready to annotate your code!

Common usages of pyo3-build-cfg flags

The #[cfg] flags added by pyo3-build-cfg can be combined with all of Rust's logic in the #[cfg] attribute to create very precise conditional code generation. The following are some common patterns implemented using these flags:

#[cfg(Py_3_7)]

This #[cfg] marks code that will only be present on Python 3.7 and upwards. There are similar options Py_3_8, Py_3_9, Py_3_10 and so on for each minor version.

#[cfg(not(Py_3_7))]

This #[cfg] marks code that will only be present on Python versions before (but not including) Python 3.7.

#[cfg(not(Py_LIMITED_API))]

This #[cfg] marks code that is only available when building for the unlimited Python API (i.e. PyO3's abi3 feature is not enabled). This might be useful if you want to ship your extension module as an abi3 wheel and also allow users to compile it from source to make use of optimizations only possible with the unlimited API.

#[cfg(any(Py_3_9, not(Py_LIMITED_API)))]

This #[cfg] marks code which is available when running Python 3.9 or newer, or when using the unlimited API with an older Python version. Patterns like this are commonly seen on Python APIs which were added to the limited Python API in a specific minor version.

#[cfg(PyPy)]

This #[cfg] marks code which is running on PyPy.

Checking the Python version at runtime

When building with PyO3's abi3 feature, your extension module will be compiled against a specific minimum version of Python, but may be running on newer Python versions.

For example with PyO3's abi3-py38 feature, your extension will be compiled as if it were for Python 3.8. If you were using pyo3-build-config, #[cfg(Py_3_8)] would be present. Your user could freely install and run your abi3 extension on Python 3.9.

There's no way to detect your user doing that at compile time, so instead you need to fall back to runtime checks.

PyO3 provides the APIs Python::version() and Python::version_info() to query the running Python version. This allows you to do the following, for example:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::Python;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
   // PyO3 supports Python 3.7 and up.
   assert!(py.version_info() >= (3, 7));
   assert!(py.version_info() >= (3, 7, 0));
});

}

The PyO3 Ecosystem

This portion of the guide is dedicated to crates which are external to the main PyO3 project and provide additional functionality you might find useful.

Because these projects evolve independently of the PyO3 repository the content of these articles may fall out of date over time; please file issues on the PyO3 Github to alert maintainers when this is the case.

Logging

It is desirable if both the Python and Rust parts of the application end up logging using the same configuration into the same place.

This section of the guide briefly discusses how to connect the two languages' logging ecosystems together. The recommended way for Python extension modules is to configure Rust's logger to send log messages to Python using the pyo3-log crate. For users who want to do the opposite and send Python log messages to Rust, see the note at the end of this guide.

Using pyo3-log to send Rust log messages to Python

The pyo3-log crate allows sending the messages from the Rust side to Python's logging system. This is mostly suitable for writing native extensions for Python programs.

Use pyo3_log::init to install the logger in its default configuration. It's also possible to tweak its configuration (mostly to tune its performance).


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use log::info;
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyfunction]
fn log_something() {
    // This will use the logger installed in `my_module` to send the `info`
    // message to the Python logging facilities.
    info!("Something!");
}

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    // A good place to install the Rust -> Python logger.
    pyo3_log::init();

    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(log_something))?;
    Ok(())
}
}

Then it is up to the Python side to actually output the messages somewhere.

import logging
import my_module

FORMAT = '%(levelname)s %(name)s %(asctime)-15s %(filename)s:%(lineno)d %(message)s'
logging.basicConfig(format=FORMAT)
logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.INFO)
my_module.log_something()

It is important to initialize the Python loggers first, before calling any Rust functions that may log. This limitation can be worked around if it is not possible to satisfy, read the documentation about caching.

The Python to Rust direction

To best of our knowledge nobody implemented the reverse direction yet, though it should be possible. If interested, the pyo3 community would be happy to provide guidance.

Async / Await

If you are working with a Python library that makes use of async functions or wish to provide Python bindings for an async Rust library, pyo3-asyncio likely has the tools you need. It provides conversions between async functions in both Python and Rust and was designed with first-class support for popular Rust runtimes such as tokio and async-std. In addition, all async Python code runs on the default asyncio event loop, so pyo3-asyncio should work just fine with existing Python libraries.

In the following sections, we'll give a general overview of pyo3-asyncio explaining how to call async Python functions with PyO3, how to call async Rust functions from Python, and how to configure your codebase to manage the runtimes of both.

Quickstart

Here are some examples to get you started right away! A more detailed breakdown of the concepts in these examples can be found in the following sections.

Rust Applications

Here we initialize the runtime, import Python's asyncio library and run the given future to completion using Python's default EventLoop and async-std. Inside the future, we convert asyncio sleep into a Rust future and await it.

# Cargo.toml dependencies
[dependencies]
pyo3 = { version = "0.14" }
pyo3-asyncio = { version = "0.14", features = ["attributes", "async-std-runtime"] }
async-std = "1.9"
//! main.rs

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyo3_asyncio::async_std::main]
async fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let fut = Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let asyncio = py.import("asyncio")?;
        // convert asyncio.sleep into a Rust Future
        pyo3_asyncio::async_std::into_future(asyncio.call_method1("sleep", (1.into_py(py),))?)
    })?;

    fut.await?;

    Ok(())
}

The same application can be written to use tokio instead using the #[pyo3_asyncio::tokio::main] attribute.

# Cargo.toml dependencies
[dependencies]
pyo3 = { version = "0.14" }
pyo3-asyncio = { version = "0.14", features = ["attributes", "tokio-runtime"] }
tokio = "1.4"
//! main.rs

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyo3_asyncio::tokio::main]
async fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let fut = Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let asyncio = py.import("asyncio")?;
        // convert asyncio.sleep into a Rust Future
        pyo3_asyncio::tokio::into_future(asyncio.call_method1("sleep", (1.into_py(py),))?)
    })?;

    fut.await?;

    Ok(())
}

More details on the usage of this library can be found in the API docs and the primer below.

PyO3 Native Rust Modules

PyO3 Asyncio can also be used to write native modules with async functions.

Add the [lib] section to Cargo.toml to make your library a cdylib that Python can import.

[lib]
name = "my_async_module"
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

Make your project depend on pyo3 with the extension-module feature enabled and select your pyo3-asyncio runtime:

For async-std:

[dependencies]
pyo3 = { version = "0.14", features = ["extension-module"] }
pyo3-asyncio = { version = "0.14", features = ["async-std-runtime"] }
async-std = "1.9"

For tokio:

[dependencies]
pyo3 = { version = "0.14", features = ["extension-module"] }
pyo3-asyncio = { version = "0.14", features = ["tokio-runtime"] }
tokio = "1.4"

Export an async function that makes use of async-std:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
//! lib.rs

use pyo3::{prelude::*, wrap_pyfunction};

#[pyfunction]
fn rust_sleep(py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<&PyAny> {
    pyo3_asyncio::async_std::future_into_py(py, async {
        async_std::task::sleep(std::time::Duration::from_secs(1)).await;
        Ok(Python::with_gil(|py| py.None()))
    })
}

#[pymodule]
fn my_async_module(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(rust_sleep, m)?)?;

    Ok(())
}

}

If you want to use tokio instead, here's what your module should look like:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
//! lib.rs

use pyo3::{prelude::*, wrap_pyfunction};

#[pyfunction]
fn rust_sleep(py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<&PyAny> {
    pyo3_asyncio::tokio::future_into_py(py, async {
        tokio::time::sleep(std::time::Duration::from_secs(1)).await;
        Ok(Python::with_gil(|py| py.None()))
    })
}

#[pymodule]
fn my_async_module(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(rust_sleep, m)?)?;
    Ok(())
}
}

You can build your module with maturin (see the Using Rust in Python section in the PyO3 guide for setup instructions). After that you should be able to run the Python REPL to try it out.

maturin develop && python3
πŸ”— Found pyo3 bindings
🐍 Found CPython 3.8 at python3
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.04s
Python 3.8.5 (default, Jan 27 2021, 15:41:15)
[GCC 9.3.0] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import asyncio
>>>
>>> from my_async_module import rust_sleep
>>>
>>> async def main():
>>>     await rust_sleep()
>>>
>>> # should sleep for 1s
>>> asyncio.run(main())
>>>

Awaiting an Async Python Function in Rust

Let's take a look at a dead simple async Python function:

# Sleep for 1 second
async def py_sleep():
    await asyncio.sleep(1)

Async functions in Python are simply functions that return a coroutine object. For our purposes, we really don't need to know much about these coroutine objects. The key factor here is that calling an async function is just like calling a regular function, the only difference is that we have to do something special with the object that it returns.

Normally in Python, that something special is the await keyword, but in order to await this coroutine in Rust, we first need to convert it into Rust's version of a coroutine: a Future. That's where pyo3-asyncio comes in. pyo3_asyncio::into_future performs this conversion for us.

The following example uses into_future to call the py_sleep function shown above and then await the coroutine object returned from the call:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyo3_asyncio::tokio::main]
async fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let future = Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<_> {
        // import the module containing the py_sleep function
        let example = py.import("example")?;

        // calling the py_sleep method like a normal function
        // returns a coroutine
        let coroutine = example.call_method0("py_sleep")?;

        // convert the coroutine into a Rust future using the
        // tokio runtime
        pyo3_asyncio::tokio::into_future(coroutine)
    })?;

    // await the future
    future.await?;

    Ok(())
}

Alternatively, the below example shows how to write a #[pyfunction] which uses into_future to receive and await a coroutine argument:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[pyfunction]
fn await_coro(coro: &PyAny) -> PyResult<()> {
    // convert the coroutine into a Rust future using the
    // async_std runtime
    let f = pyo3_asyncio::async_std::into_future(coro)?;

    pyo3_asyncio::async_std::run_until_complete(coro.py(), async move {
        // await the future
        f.await?;
        Ok(())
    })
}
}

This could be called from Python as:

import asyncio

async def py_sleep():
    asyncio.sleep(1)

await_coro(py_sleep())

If for you wanted to pass a callable function to the #[pyfunction] instead, (i.e. the last line becomes await_coro(py_sleep)), then the above example needs to be tweaked to first call the callable to get the coroutine:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[pyfunction]
fn await_coro(callable: &PyAny) -> PyResult<()> {
    // get the coroutine by calling the callable
    let coro = callable.call0()?;

    // convert the coroutine into a Rust future using the
    // async_std runtime
    let f = pyo3_asyncio::async_std::into_future(coro)?;

    pyo3_asyncio::async_std::run_until_complete(coro.py(), async move {
        // await the future
        f.await?;
        Ok(())
    })
}
}

This can be particularly helpful where you need to repeatedly create and await a coroutine. Trying to await the same coroutine multiple times will raise an error:

RuntimeError: cannot reuse already awaited coroutine

If you're interested in learning more about coroutines and awaitables in general, check out the Python 3 asyncio docs for more information.

Awaiting a Rust Future in Python

Here we have the same async function as before written in Rust using the async-std runtime:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
/// Sleep for 1 second
async fn rust_sleep() {
    async_std::task::sleep(std::time::Duration::from_secs(1)).await;
}
}

Similar to Python, Rust's async functions also return a special object called a Future:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
let future = rust_sleep();
}

We can convert this Future object into Python to make it awaitable. This tells Python that you can use the await keyword with it. In order to do this, we'll call pyo3_asyncio::async_std::future_into_py:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

async fn rust_sleep() {
    async_std::task::sleep(std::time::Duration::from_secs(1)).await;
}

#[pyfunction]
fn call_rust_sleep(py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<&PyAny> {
    pyo3_asyncio::async_std::future_into_py(py, async move {
        rust_sleep().await;
        Ok(Python::with_gil(|py| py.None()))
    })
}
}

In Python, we can call this pyo3 function just like any other async function:

from example import call_rust_sleep

async def rust_sleep():
    await call_rust_sleep()

Managing Event Loops

Python's event loop requires some special treatment, especially regarding the main thread. Some of Python's asyncio features, like proper signal handling, require control over the main thread, which doesn't always play well with Rust.

Luckily, Rust's event loops are pretty flexible and don't need control over the main thread, so in pyo3-asyncio, we decided the best way to handle Rust/Python interop was to just surrender the main thread to Python and run Rust's event loops in the background. Unfortunately, since most event loop implementations prefer control over the main thread, this can still make some things awkward.

PyO3 Asyncio Initialization

Because Python needs to control the main thread, we can't use the convenient proc macros from Rust runtimes to handle the main function or #[test] functions. Instead, the initialization for PyO3 has to be done from the main function and the main thread must block on pyo3_asyncio::run_forever or pyo3_asyncio::async_std::run_until_complete.

Because we have to block on one of those functions, we can't use #[async_std::main] or #[tokio::main] since it's not a good idea to make long blocking calls during an async function.

Internally, these #[main] proc macros are expanded to something like this:

fn main() {
    // your async main fn
    async fn _main_impl() { /* ... */ }
    Runtime::new().block_on(_main_impl());
}

Making a long blocking call inside the Future that's being driven by block_on prevents that thread from doing anything else and can spell trouble for some runtimes (also this will actually deadlock a single-threaded runtime!). Many runtimes have some sort of spawn_blocking mechanism that can avoid this problem, but again that's not something we can use here since we need it to block on the main thread.

For this reason, pyo3-asyncio provides its own set of proc macros to provide you with this initialization. These macros are intended to mirror the initialization of async-std and tokio while also satisfying the Python runtime's needs.

Here's a full example of PyO3 initialization with the async-std runtime:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyo3_asyncio::async_std::main]
async fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    // PyO3 is initialized - Ready to go

    let fut = Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<_> {
        let asyncio = py.import("asyncio")?;

        // convert asyncio.sleep into a Rust Future
        pyo3_asyncio::async_std::into_future(
            asyncio.call_method1("sleep", (1.into_py(py),))?
        )
    })?;

    fut.await?;

    Ok(())
}

A Note About asyncio.run

In Python 3.7+, the recommended way to run a top-level coroutine with asyncio is with asyncio.run. In v0.13 we recommended against using this function due to initialization issues, but in v0.14 it's perfectly valid to use this function... with a caveat.

Since our Rust <--> Python conversions require a reference to the Python event loop, this poses a problem. Imagine we have a PyO3 Asyncio module that defines a rust_sleep function like in previous examples. You might rightfully assume that you can call pass this directly into asyncio.run like this:

import asyncio

from my_async_module import rust_sleep

asyncio.run(rust_sleep())

You might be surprised to find out that this throws an error:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "example.py", line 5, in <module>
    asyncio.run(rust_sleep())
RuntimeError: no running event loop

What's happening here is that we are calling rust_sleep before the future is actually running on the event loop created by asyncio.run. This is counter-intuitive, but expected behaviour, and unfortunately there doesn't seem to be a good way of solving this problem within PyO3 Asyncio itself.

However, we can make this example work with a simple workaround:

import asyncio

from my_async_module import rust_sleep

# Calling main will just construct the coroutine that later calls rust_sleep.
# - This ensures that rust_sleep will be called when the event loop is running,
#   not before.
async def main():
    await rust_sleep()

# Run the main() coroutine at the top-level instead
asyncio.run(main())

Non-standard Python Event Loops

Python allows you to use alternatives to the default asyncio event loop. One popular alternative is uvloop. In v0.13 using non-standard event loops was a bit of an ordeal, but in v0.14 it's trivial.

Using uvloop in a PyO3 Asyncio Native Extensions

# Cargo.toml

[lib]
name = "my_async_module"
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

[dependencies]
pyo3 = { version = "0.14", features = ["extension-module"] }
pyo3-asyncio = { version = "0.14", features = ["tokio-runtime"] }
async-std = "1.9"
tokio = "1.4"

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
//! lib.rs

use pyo3::{prelude::*, wrap_pyfunction};

#[pyfunction]
fn rust_sleep(py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<&PyAny> {
    pyo3_asyncio::tokio::future_into_py(py, async {
        tokio::time::sleep(std::time::Duration::from_secs(1)).await;
        Ok(Python::with_gil(|py| py.None()))
    })
}

#[pymodule]
fn my_async_module(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(rust_sleep, m)?)?;

    Ok(())
}
}
$ maturin develop && python3
πŸ”— Found pyo3 bindings
🐍 Found CPython 3.8 at python3
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.04s
Python 3.8.8 (default, Apr 13 2021, 19:58:26)
[GCC 7.3.0] :: Anaconda, Inc. on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import asyncio
>>> import uvloop
>>>
>>> import my_async_module
>>>
>>> uvloop.install()
>>>
>>> async def main():
...     await my_async_module.rust_sleep()
...
>>> asyncio.run(main())
>>>

Using uvloop in Rust Applications

Using uvloop in Rust applications is a bit trickier, but it's still possible with relatively few modifications.

Unfortunately, we can't make use of the #[pyo3_asyncio::<runtime>::main] attribute with non-standard event loops. This is because the #[pyo3_asyncio::<runtime>::main] proc macro has to interact with the Python event loop before we can install the uvloop policy.

[dependencies]
async-std = "1.9"
pyo3 = "0.14"
pyo3-asyncio = { version = "0.14", features = ["async-std-runtime"] }
//! main.rs

use pyo3::{prelude::*, types::PyType};

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    pyo3::prepare_freethreaded_python();

    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let uvloop = py.import("uvloop")?;
        uvloop.call_method0("install")?;

        // store a reference for the assertion
        let uvloop = PyObject::from(uvloop);

        pyo3_asyncio::async_std::run(py, async move {
            // verify that we are on a uvloop.Loop
            Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
                assert!(pyo3_asyncio::async_std::get_current_loop(py)?.is_instance(
                    uvloop
                        .as_ref(py)
                        .getattr("Loop")?
                        .downcast::<PyType>()
                        .unwrap()
                )?);
                Ok(())
            })?;

            async_std::task::sleep(std::time::Duration::from_secs(1)).await;

            Ok(())
        })
    })
}

Additional Information

  • Managing event loop references can be tricky with pyo3-asyncio. See Event Loop References in the API docs to get a better intuition for how event loop references are managed in this library.
  • Testing pyo3-asyncio libraries and applications requires a custom test harness since Python requires control over the main thread. You can find a testing guide in the API docs for the testing module

Frequently Asked Questions / Troubleshooting

I'm experiencing deadlocks using PyO3 with lazy_static or once_cell!

lazy_static and once_cell::sync both use locks to ensure that initialization is performed only by a single thread. Because the Python GIL is an additional lock this can lead to deadlocks in the following way:

  1. A thread (thread A) which has acquired the Python GIL starts initialization of a lazy_static value.
  2. The initialization code calls some Python API which temporarily releases the GIL e.g. Python::import.
  3. Another thread (thread B) acquires the Python GIL and attempts to access the same lazy_static value.
  4. Thread B is blocked, because it waits for lazy_static's initialization to lock to release.
  5. Thread A is blocked, because it waits to re-acquire the GIL which thread B still holds.
  6. Deadlock.

PyO3 provides a struct GILOnceCell which works equivalently to OnceCell but relies solely on the Python GIL for thread safety. This means it can be used in place of lazy_static or once_cell where you are experiencing the deadlock described above. See the documentation for GILOnceCell for an example how to use it.

I can't run cargo test: I'm having linker issues like "Symbol not found" or "Undefined reference to _PyExc_SystemError"!

Currently, #340 causes cargo test to fail with linking errors when the extension-module feature is activated. For now you can work around this by making the extension-module feature optional and running the tests with cargo test --no-default-features:

[dependencies.pyo3]
git = "https://github.com/pyo3/pyo3"

[features]
extension-module = ["pyo3/extension-module"]
default = ["extension-module"]

I can't run cargo test: my crate cannot be found for tests in tests/ directory!

The Rust book suggests to put integration tests inside a tests/ directory.

For a PyO3 extension-module project where the crate-type is set to "cdylib" in your Cargo.toml, the compiler won't be able to find your crate and will display errors such as E0432 or E0463:

error[E0432]: unresolved import `my_crate`
 --> tests/test_my_crate.rs:1:5
  |
1 | use my_crate;
  |     ^^^^^^^^^^^^ no external crate `my_crate`

The best solution is to make your crate types include both rlib and cdylib:

# Cargo.toml
[lib]
crate-type = ["cdylib", "rlib"]

Ctrl-C doesn't do anything while my Rust code is executing!

This is because Ctrl-C raises a SIGINT signal, which is handled by the calling Python process by simply setting a flag to action upon later. This flag isn't checked while Rust code called from Python is executing, only once control returns to the Python interpreter.

You can give the Python interpreter a chance to process the signal properly by calling Python::check_signals. It's good practice to call this function regularly if you have a long-running Rust function so that your users can cancel it.

#[pyo3(get)] clones my field!

You may have a nested struct similar to this:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
#[derive(Clone)]
struct Inner { /* fields omitted */ }

#[pyclass]
struct Outer {
    #[pyo3(get)]
    inner: Inner,
}

#[pymethods]
impl Outer {
    #[new]
    fn __new__() -> Self {
        Self { inner: Inner {} }
    }
}
}

When Python code accesses Outer's field, PyO3 will return a new object on every access (note that their addresses are different):

outer = Outer()

a = outer.inner
b = outer.inner

assert a is b, f"a: {a}\nb: {b}"
AssertionError: a: <builtins.Inner object at 0x00000238FFB9C7B0>
b: <builtins.Inner object at 0x00000238FFB9C830>

This can be especially confusing if the field is mutable, as getting the field and then mutating it won't persist - you'll just get a fresh clone of the original on the next access. Unfortunately Python and Rust don't agree about ownership - if PyO3 gave out references to (possibly) temporary Rust objects to Python code, Python code could then keep that reference alive indefinitely. Therefore returning Rust objects requires cloning.

If you don't want that cloning to happen, a workaround is to allocate the field on the Python heap and store a reference to that, by using Py<...>:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
#[derive(Clone)]
struct Inner { /* fields omitted */ }

#[pyclass]
struct Outer {
    #[pyo3(get)]
    inner: Py<Inner>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl Outer {
    #[new]
    fn __new__(py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<Self> {
        Ok(Self {
            inner: Py::new(py, Inner {})?,
        })
    }
}
}

This time a and b are the same object:

outer = Outer()

a = outer.inner
b = outer.inner

assert a is b, f"a: {a}\nb: {b}"
print(f"a: {a}\nb: {b}")
a: <builtins.Inner object at 0x0000020044FCC670>
b: <builtins.Inner object at 0x0000020044FCC670>

The downside to this approach is that any Rust code working on the Outer struct now has to acquire the GIL to do anything with its field.

I want to use the pyo3 crate re-exported from from dependency but the proc-macros fail!

All PyO3 proc-macros (#[pyclass], #[pyfunction], #[derive(FromPyObject)] and so on) expect the pyo3 crate to be available under that name in your crate root, which is the normal situation when pyo3 is a direct dependency of your crate.

However, when the dependency is renamed, or your crate only indirectly depends on pyo3, you need to let the macro code know where to find the crate. This is done with the crate attribute:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
pub extern crate pyo3;
mod reexported { pub use ::pyo3; }
#[pyclass]
#[pyo3(crate = "reexported::pyo3")]
struct MyClass;
}

Migrating from older PyO3 versions

This guide can help you upgrade code through breaking changes from one PyO3 version to the next. For a detailed list of all changes, see the CHANGELOG.

from 0.16.* to 0.17

Added impl IntoPy<Py<PyString>> for &str

This may cause inference errors.

Before:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn main() {
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    // Cannot infer either `Py<PyAny>` or `Py<PyString>`
    let _test = "test".into_py(py);
});
}

After, some type annotations may be necessary:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn main() {
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let _test: Py<PyAny> = "test".into_py(py);
});
}

The pyproto feature is now disabled by default

In preparation for removing the deprecated #[pyproto] attribute macro in a future PyO3 version, it is now gated behind an opt-in feature flag. This also gives a slight saving to compile times for code which does not use the deprecated macro.

PyTypeObject trait has been deprecated

The PyTypeObject trait already was near-useless; almost all functionality was already on the PyTypeInfo trait, which PyTypeObject had a blanket implementation based upon. In PyO3 0.17 the final method, PyTypeObject::type_object was moved to PyTypeInfo::type_object.

To migrate, update trait bounds and imports from PyTypeObject to PyTypeInfo.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::Python;
use pyo3::type_object::PyTypeObject;
use pyo3::types::PyType;

fn get_type_object<T: PyTypeObject>(py: Python<'_>) -> &PyType {
    T::type_object(py)
}
}

After


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::{Python, PyTypeInfo};
use pyo3::types::PyType;

fn get_type_object<T: PyTypeInfo>(py: Python<'_>) -> &PyType {
    T::type_object(py)
}

Python::with_gil(|py| { get_type_object::<pyo3::types::PyList>(py); });
}

impl<T, const N: usize> IntoPy<PyObject> for [T; N] now requires T: IntoPy rather than T: ToPyObject

If this leads to errors, simply implement IntoPy. Because pyclasses already implement IntoPy, you probably don't need to worry about this.

from 0.15.* to 0.16

Drop support for older technologies

PyO3 0.16 has increased minimum Rust version to 1.48 and minimum Python version to 3.7. This enables use of newer language features (enabling some of the other additions in 0.16) and simplifies maintenance of the project.

#[pyproto] has been deprecated

In PyO3 0.15, the #[pymethods] attribute macro gained support for implementing "magic methods" such as __str__ (aka "dunder" methods). This implementation was not quite finalized at the time, with a few edge cases to be decided upon. The existing #[pyproto] attribute macro was left untouched, because it covered these edge cases.

In PyO3 0.16, the #[pymethods] implementation has been completed and is now the preferred way to implement magic methods. To allow the PyO3 project to move forward, #[pyproto] has been deprecated (with expected removal in PyO3 0.18).

Migration from #[pyproto] to #[pymethods] is straightforward; copying the existing methods directly from the #[pyproto] trait implementation is all that is needed in most cases.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::class::{PyBasicProtocol, PyIterProtocol};
use pyo3::types::PyString;

#[pyclass]
struct MyClass { }

#[pyproto]
impl PyBasicProtocol for MyClass {
    fn __str__(&self) -> &'static [u8] {
        b"hello, world"
    }
}

#[pyproto]
impl PyIterProtocol for MyClass {
    fn __iter__(slf: PyRef<self>) -> PyResult<&PyAny> {
        PyString::new(slf.py(), "hello, world").iter()
    }
}
}

After


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyString;

#[pyclass]
struct MyClass { }

#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    fn __str__(&self) -> &'static [u8] {
        b"hello, world"
    }

    fn __iter__(slf: PyRef<self>) -> PyResult<&PyAny> {
        PyString::new(slf.py(), "hello, world").iter()
    }
}
}

Removed PartialEq for object wrappers

The Python object wrappers Py and PyAny had implementations of PartialEq so that object_a == object_b would compare the Python objects for pointer equality, which corresponds to the is operator, not the == operator in Python. This has been removed in favor of a new method: use object_a.is(object_b). This also has the advantage of not requiring the same wrapper type for object_a and object_b; you can now directly compare a Py<T> with a &PyAny without having to convert.

To check for Python object equality (the Python == operator), use the new method eq().

Container magic methods now match Python behavior

In PyO3 0.15, __getitem__, __setitem__ and __delitem__ in #[pymethods] would generate only the mapping implementation for a #[pyclass]. To match the Python behavior, these methods now generate both the mapping and sequence implementations.

This means that classes implementing these #[pymethods] will now also be treated as sequences, same as a Python class would be. Small differences in behavior may result:

  • PyO3 will allow instances of these classes to be cast to PySequence as well as PyMapping.
  • Python will provide a default implementation of __iter__ (if the class did not have one) which repeatedly calls __getitem__ with integers (starting at 0) until an IndexError is raised.

To explain this in detail, consider the following Python class:

class ExampleContainer:

    def __len__(self):
        return 5

    def __getitem__(self, idx: int) -> int:
        if idx < 0 or idx > 5:
            raise IndexError()
        return idx

This class implements a Python sequence.

The __len__ and __getitem__ methods are also used to implement a Python mapping. In the Python C-API, these methods are not shared: the sequence __len__ and __getitem__ are defined by the sq_len and sq_item slots, and the mapping equivalents are mp_len and mp_subscript. There are similar distinctions for __setitem__ and __delitem__.

Because there is no such distinction from Python, implementing these methods will fill the mapping and sequence slots simultaneously. A Python class with __len__ implemented, for example, will have both the sq_len and mp_len slots filled.

The PyO3 behavior in 0.16 has been changed to be closer to this Python behavior by default.

wrap_pymodule! and wrap_pyfunction! now respect privacy correctly

Prior to PyO3 0.16 the wrap_pymodule! and wrap_pyfunction! macros could use modules and functions whose defining fn was not reachable according Rust privacy rules.

For example, the following code was legal before 0.16, but in 0.16 is rejected because the wrap_pymodule! macro cannot access the private_submodule function:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
mod foo {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;

    #[pymodule]
    fn private_submodule(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use foo::*;

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_wrapped(wrap_pymodule!(private_submodule))?;
    Ok(())
}
}

To fix it, make the private submodule visible, e.g. with pub or pub(crate).


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
mod foo {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;

    #[pymodule]
    pub(crate) fn private_submodule(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::wrap_pymodule;
use foo::*;

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_wrapped(wrap_pymodule!(private_submodule))?;
    Ok(())
}
}

from 0.14.* to 0.15

Changes in sequence indexing

For all types that take sequence indices (PyList, PyTuple and PySequence), the API has been made consistent to only take usize indices, for consistency with Rust's indexing conventions. Negative indices, which were only sporadically supported even in APIs that took isize, now aren't supported anywhere.

Further, the get_item methods now always return a PyResult instead of panicking on invalid indices. The Index trait has been implemented instead, and provides the same panic behavior as on Rust vectors.

Note that slice indices (accepted by PySequence::get_slice and other) still inherit the Python behavior of clamping the indices to the actual length, and not panicking/returning an error on out of range indices.

An additional advantage of using Rust's indexing conventions for these types is that these types can now also support Rust's indexing operators as part of a consistent API:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::{Python, types::PyList};

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let list = PyList::new(py, &[1, 2, 3]);
    assert_eq!(list[0..2].to_string(), "[1, 2]");
});
}

from 0.13.* to 0.14

auto-initialize feature is now opt-in

For projects embedding Python in Rust, PyO3 no longer automatically initializes a Python interpreter on the first call to Python::with_gil (or Python::acquire_gil) unless the auto-initialize feature is enabled.

New multiple-pymethods feature

#[pymethods] have been reworked with a simpler default implementation which removes the dependency on the inventory crate. This reduces dependencies and compile times for the majority of users.

The limitation of the new default implementation is that it cannot support multiple #[pymethods] blocks for the same #[pyclass]. If you need this functionality, you must enable the multiple-pymethods feature which will switch #[pymethods] to the inventory-based implementation.

Deprecated #[pyproto] methods

Some protocol (aka __dunder__) methods such as __bytes__ and __format__ have been possible to implement two ways in PyO3 for some time: via a #[pyproto] (e.g. PyBasicProtocol for the methods listed here), or by writing them directly in #[pymethods]. This is only true for a handful of the #[pyproto] methods (for technical reasons to do with the way PyO3 currently interacts with the Python C-API).

In the interest of having onle one way to do things, the #[pyproto] forms of these methods have been deprecated.

To migrate just move the affected methods from a #[pyproto] to a #[pymethods] block.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::class::basic::PyBasicProtocol;

#[pyclass]
struct MyClass { }

#[pyproto]
impl PyBasicProtocol for MyClass {
    fn __bytes__(&self) -> &'static [u8] {
        b"hello, world"
    }
}
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct MyClass { }

#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    fn __bytes__(&self) -> &'static [u8] {
        b"hello, world"
    }
}
}

from 0.12.* to 0.13

Minimum Rust version increased to Rust 1.45

PyO3 0.13 makes use of new Rust language features stabilised between Rust 1.40 and Rust 1.45. If you are using a Rust compiler older than Rust 1.45, you will need to update your toolchain to be able to continue using PyO3.

Runtime changes to support the CPython limited API

In PyO3 0.13 support was added for compiling against the CPython limited API. This had a number of implications for all PyO3 users, described here.

The largest of these is that all types created from PyO3 are what CPython calls "heap" types. The specific implications of this are:

  • If you wish to subclass one of these types from Rust you must mark it #[pyclass(subclass)], as you would if you wished to allow subclassing it from Python code.
  • Type objects are now mutable - Python code can set attributes on them.
  • __module__ on types without #[pyclass(module="mymodule")] no longer returns builtins, it now raises AttributeError.

from 0.11.* to 0.12

PyErr has been reworked

In PyO3 0.12 the PyErr type has been re-implemented to be significantly more compatible with the standard Rust error handling ecosystem. Specifically PyErr now implements Error + Send + Sync, which are the standard traits used for error types.

While this has necessitated the removal of a number of APIs, the resulting PyErr type should now be much more easier to work with. The following sections list the changes in detail and how to migrate to the new APIs.

PyErr::new and PyErr::from_type now require Send + Sync for their argument

For most uses no change will be needed. If you are trying to construct PyErr from a value that is not Send + Sync, you will need to first create the Python object and then use PyErr::from_instance.

Similarly, any types which implemented PyErrArguments will now need to be Send + Sync.

PyErr's contents are now private

It is no longer possible to access the fields .ptype, .pvalue and .ptraceback of a PyErr. You should instead now use the new methods PyErr::ptype, PyErr::pvalue and PyErr::ptraceback.

PyErrValue and PyErr::from_value have been removed

As these were part the internals of PyErr which have been reworked, these APIs no longer exist.

If you used this API, it is recommended to use PyException::new_err (see the section on Exception types).

Into<PyResult<T>> for PyErr has been removed

This implementation was redundant. Just construct the Result::Err variant directly.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
let result: PyResult<()> = PyErr::new::<TypeError, _>("error message").into();
}

After (also using the new reworked exception types; see the following section):


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::{PyResult, exceptions::PyTypeError};
let result: PyResult<()> = Err(PyTypeError::new_err("error message"));
}

Exception types have been reworked

Previously exception types were zero-sized marker types purely used to construct PyErr. In PyO3 0.12, these types have been replaced with full definitions and are usable in the same way as PyAny, PyDict etc. This makes it possible to interact with Python exception objects.

The new types also have names starting with the "Py" prefix. For example, before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
let err: PyErr = TypeError::py_err("error message");
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::{PyErr, PyResult, Python, type_object::PyTypeObject};
use pyo3::exceptions::{PyBaseException, PyTypeError};
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
let err: PyErr = PyTypeError::new_err("error message");

// Uses Display for PyErr, new for PyO3 0.12
assert_eq!(err.to_string(), "TypeError: error message");

// Now possible to interact with exception instances, new for PyO3 0.12
let instance: &PyBaseException = err.instance(py);
assert_eq!(instance.getattr("__class__")?, PyTypeError::type_object(py).as_ref());
Ok(())
}).unwrap();
}

FromPy has been removed

To simplify the PyO3 conversion traits, the FromPy trait has been removed. Previously there were two ways to define the to-Python conversion for a type: FromPy<T> for PyObject and IntoPy<PyObject> for T.

Now there is only one way to define the conversion, IntoPy, so downstream crates may need to adjust accordingly.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
struct MyPyObjectWrapper(PyObject);

impl FromPy<MyPyObjectWrapper> for PyObject {
    fn from_py(other: MyPyObjectWrapper, _py: Python<'_>) -> Self {
        other.0
    }
}
}

After


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
struct MyPyObjectWrapper(PyObject);

impl IntoPy<PyObject> for MyPyObjectWrapper {
    fn into_py(self, _py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject {
        self.0
    }
}
}

Similarly, code which was using the FromPy trait can be trivially rewritten to use IntoPy.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
Python::with_gil(|py| {
let obj = PyObject::from_py(1.234, py);
})
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
Python::with_gil(|py| {
let obj: PyObject = 1.234.into_py(py);
})
}

PyObject is now a type alias of Py<PyAny>

This should change very little from a usage perspective. If you implemented traits for both PyObject and Py<T>, you may find you can just remove the PyObject implementation.

AsPyRef has been removed

As PyObject has been changed to be just a type alias, the only remaining implementor of AsPyRef was Py<T>. This removed the need for a trait, so the AsPyRef::as_ref method has been moved to Py::as_ref.

This should require no code changes except removing use pyo3::AsPyRef for code which did not use pyo3::prelude::*.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::{AsPyRef, Py, types::PyList};
pyo3::Python::with_gil(|py| {
let list_py: Py<PyList> = PyList::empty(py).into();
let list_ref: &PyList = list_py.as_ref(py);
})
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::{Py, types::PyList};
pyo3::Python::with_gil(|py| {
let list_py: Py<PyList> = PyList::empty(py).into();
let list_ref: &PyList = list_py.as_ref(py);
})
}

from 0.10.* to 0.11

Stable Rust

PyO3 now supports the stable Rust toolchain. The minimum required version is 1.39.0.

#[pyclass] structs must now be Send or unsendable

Because #[pyclass] structs can be sent between threads by the Python interpreter, they must implement Send or declared as unsendable (by #[pyclass(unsendable)]). Note that unsendable is added in PyO3 0.11.1 and Send is always required in PyO3 0.11.0.

This may "break" some code which previously was accepted, even though it could be unsound. There can be two fixes:

  1. If you think that your #[pyclass] actually must be Sendable, then let's implement Send. A common, safer way is using thread-safe types. E.g., Arc instead of Rc, Mutex instead of RefCell, and Box<dyn Send + T> instead of Box<dyn T>.

    Before:

    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    use std::rc::Rc;
    use std::cell::RefCell;
    
    #[pyclass]
    struct NotThreadSafe {
        shared_bools: Rc<RefCell<Vec<bool>>>,
        closure: Box<dyn Fn()>
    }
    }
    

    After:

    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    #![allow(dead_code)]
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    use std::sync::{Arc, Mutex};
    
    #[pyclass]
    struct ThreadSafe {
        shared_bools: Arc<Mutex<Vec<bool>>>,
        closure: Box<dyn Fn() + Send>
    }
    }
    

    In situations where you cannot change your #[pyclass] to automatically implement Send (e.g., when it contains a raw pointer), you can use unsafe impl Send. In such cases, care should be taken to ensure the struct is actually thread safe. See the Rustnomicon for more.

  2. If you think that your #[pyclass] should not be accessed by another thread, you can use unsendable flag. A class marked with unsendable panics when accessed by another thread, making it thread-safe to expose an unsendable object to the Python interpreter.

    Before:

    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    
    #[pyclass]
    struct Unsendable {
        pointers: Vec<*mut std::os::raw::c_char>,
    }
    }
    

    After:

    
    #![allow(unused)]
    fn main() {
    #![allow(dead_code)]
    use pyo3::prelude::*;
    
    #[pyclass(unsendable)]
    struct Unsendable {
        pointers: Vec<*mut std::os::raw::c_char>,
    }
    }
    

All PyObject and Py<T> methods now take Python as an argument

Previously, a few methods such as Object::get_refcnt did not take Python as an argument (to ensure that the Python GIL was held by the current thread). Technically, this was not sound. To migrate, just pass a py argument to any calls to these methods.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
pyo3::Python::with_gil(|py| {
py.None().get_refcnt();
})
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
pyo3::Python::with_gil(|py| {
py.None().get_refcnt(py);
})
}

from 0.9.* to 0.10

ObjectProtocol is removed

All methods are moved to PyAny. And since now all native types (e.g., PyList) implements Deref<Target=PyAny>, all you need to do is remove ObjectProtocol from your code. Or if you use ObjectProtocol by use pyo3::prelude::*, you have to do nothing.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::ObjectProtocol;

pyo3::Python::with_gil(|py| {
let obj = py.eval("lambda: 'Hi :)'", None, None).unwrap();
let hi: &pyo3::types::PyString = obj.call0().unwrap().downcast().unwrap();
assert_eq!(hi.len().unwrap(), 5);
})
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
pyo3::Python::with_gil(|py| {
let obj = py.eval("lambda: 'Hi :)'", None, None).unwrap();
let hi: &pyo3::types::PyString = obj.call0().unwrap().downcast().unwrap();
assert_eq!(hi.len().unwrap(), 5);
})
}

No #![feature(specialization)] in user code

While PyO3 itself still requires specialization and nightly Rust, now you don't have to use #![feature(specialization)] in your crate.

from 0.8.* to 0.9

#[new] interface

PyRawObject is now removed and our syntax for constructors has changed.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {}

#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
   #[new]
   fn new(obj: &PyRawObject) {
       obj.init(MyClass { })
   }
}
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {}

#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
   #[new]
   fn new() -> Self {
       MyClass {}
   }
}
}

Basically you can return Self or Result<Self> directly. For more, see the constructor section of this guide.

PyCell

PyO3 0.9 introduces PyCell, which is a RefCell-like object wrapper for ensuring Rust's rules regarding aliasing of references are upheld. For more detail, see the Rust Book's section on Rust's rules of references

For #[pymethods] or #[pyfunction]s, your existing code should continue to work without any change. Python exceptions will automatically be raised when your functions are used in a way which breaks Rust's rules of references.

Here is an example.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Names {
    names: Vec<String>
}

#[pymethods]
impl Names {
    #[new]
    fn new() -> Self {
        Names { names: vec![] }
    }
    fn merge(&mut self, other: &mut Names) {
        self.names.append(&mut other.names)
    }
}
Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let names = PyCell::new(py, Names::new()).unwrap();
    pyo3::py_run!(py, names, r"
    try:
       names.merge(names)
       assert False, 'Unreachable'
    except RuntimeError as e:
       assert str(e) == 'Already borrowed'
    ");
})
}

Names has a merge method, which takes &mut self and another argument of type &mut Self. Given this #[pyclass], calling names.merge(names) in Python raises a PyBorrowMutError exception, since it requires two mutable borrows of names.

However, for #[pyproto] and some functions, you need to manually fix the code.

Object creation

In 0.8 object creation was done with PyRef::new and PyRefMut::new. In 0.9 these have both been removed. To upgrade code, please use PyCell::new instead. If you need PyRef or PyRefMut, just call .borrow() or .borrow_mut() on the newly-created PyCell.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {}
Python::with_gil(|py| {
let obj_ref = PyRef::new(py, MyClass {}).unwrap();
})
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {}
Python::with_gil(|py| {
let obj = PyCell::new(py, MyClass {}).unwrap();
let obj_ref = obj.borrow();
})
}

Object extraction

For PyClass types T, &T and &mut T no longer have FromPyObject implementations. Instead you should extract PyRef<T> or PyRefMut<T>, respectively. If T implements Clone, you can extract T itself. In addition, you can also extract &PyCell<T>, though you rarely need it.

Before:

let obj: &PyAny = create_obj();
let obj_ref: &MyClass = obj.extract().unwrap();
let obj_ref_mut: &mut MyClass = obj.extract().unwrap();

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::IntoPyDict;
#[pyclass] #[derive(Clone)] struct MyClass {}
#[pymethods] impl MyClass { #[new]fn new() -> Self { MyClass {} }}
Python::with_gil(|py| {
let typeobj = py.get_type::<MyClass>();
let d = [("c", typeobj)].into_py_dict(py);
let create_obj = || py.eval("c()", None, Some(d)).unwrap();
let obj: &PyAny = create_obj();
let obj_cell: &PyCell<MyClass> = obj.extract().unwrap();
let obj_cloned: MyClass = obj.extract().unwrap(); // extracted by cloning the object
{
    let obj_ref: PyRef<'_, MyClass> = obj.extract().unwrap();
    // we need to drop obj_ref before we can extract a PyRefMut due to Rust's rules of references
}
let obj_ref_mut: PyRefMut<'_, MyClass> = obj.extract().unwrap();
})
}

#[pyproto]

Most of the arguments to methods in #[pyproto] impls require a FromPyObject implementation. So if your protocol methods take &T or &mut T (where T: PyClass), please use PyRef or PyRefMut instead.

Before:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::class::PySequenceProtocol;
#[pyclass]
struct ByteSequence {
    elements: Vec<u8>,
}
#[pyproto]
impl PySequenceProtocol for ByteSequence {
    fn __concat__(&self, other: &Self) -> PyResult<Self> {
        let mut elements = self.elements.clone();
        elements.extend_from_slice(&other.elements);
        Ok(Self { elements })
    }
}
}

After:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[allow(deprecated)]
#[cfg(feature = "pyproto")]
{
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::class::PySequenceProtocol;
#[pyclass]
struct ByteSequence {
    elements: Vec<u8>,
}
#[pyproto]
impl PySequenceProtocol for ByteSequence {
    fn __concat__(&self, other: PyRef<'p, Self>) -> PyResult<Self> {
        let mut elements = self.elements.clone();
        elements.extend_from_slice(&other.elements);
        Ok(Self { elements })
    }
}
}
}

PyO3 and rust-cpython

PyO3 began as fork of rust-cpython when rust-cpython wasn't maintained. Over time PyO3 has become fundamentally different from rust-cpython.

Macros

While rust-cpython has a macro_rules! based dsl for declaring modules and classes, PyO3 uses proc macros. PyO3 also doesn't change your struct and functions so you can still use them as normal Rust functions.

rust-cpython

py_class!(class MyClass |py| {
    data number: i32;
    def __new__(_cls, arg: i32) -> PyResult<MyClass> {
        MyClass::create_instance(py, arg)
    }
    def half(&self) -> PyResult<i32> {
        Ok(self.number(py) / 2)
    }
});

pyo3


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct MyClass {
   num: u32,
}

#[pymethods]
impl MyClass {
    #[new]
    fn new(num: u32) -> Self {
        MyClass { num }
    }

    fn half(&self) -> PyResult<u32> {
        Ok(self.num / 2)
    }
}
}

Ownership and lifetimes

While in rust-cpython you always own python objects, PyO3 allows efficient borrowed objects and most APIs are available with references.

Here is an example of the PyList API:

rust-cpython

impl PyList {

   fn new(py: Python<'_>) -> PyList {...}

   fn get_item(&self, py: Python<'_>, index: isize) -> PyObject {...}
}

pyo3

impl PyList {

   fn new(py: Python<'_>) -> &PyList {...}

   fn get_item(&self, index: isize) -> &PyAny {...}
}

In PyO3, all object references are bounded by the GIL lifetime. So the owned Python object is not required, and it is safe to have functions like fn py<'p>(&'p self) -> Python<'p> {}.

Error handling

rust-cpython requires a Python parameter for constructing a PyErr, so error handling ergonomics is pretty bad. It is not possible to use ? with Rust errors.

PyO3 on other hand does not require Python for constructing a PyErr, it is only required if you want to raise an exception in Python with the PyErr::restore() method. Due to various std::convert::From<E> for PyErr implementations for Rust standard error types E, propagating ? is supported automatically.

Using in Python a Rust function with trait bounds

PyO3 allows for easy conversion from Rust to Python for certain functions and classes (see the conversion table. However, it is not always straightforward to convert Rust code that requires a given trait implementation as an argument.

This tutorial explains how to convert a Rust function that takes a trait as argument for use in Python with classes implementing the same methods as the trait.

Why is this useful?

Pros

  • Make your Rust code available to Python users
  • Code complex algorithms in Rust with the help of the borrow checker

Cons

  • Not as fast as native Rust (type conversion has to be performed and one part of the code runs in Python)
  • You need to adapt your code to expose it

Example

Let's work with the following basic example of an implementation of a optimization solver operating on a given model.

Let's say we have a function solve that operates on a model and mutates its state. The argument of the function can be any model that implements the Model trait :


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
pub trait Model {
  fn set_variables(&mut self, inputs: &Vec<f64>);
  fn compute(&mut self);
  fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64>;
}

pub fn solve<T: Model>(model: &mut T) {
  println!("Magic solver that mutates the model into a resolved state");
}
}

Let's assume we have the following constraints:

  • We cannot change that code as it runs on many Rust models.
  • We also have many Python models that cannot be solved as this solver is not available in that language. Rewriting it in Python would be cumbersome and error-prone, as everything is already available in Rust.

How could we expose this solver to Python thanks to PyO3 ?

Implementation of the trait bounds for the Python class

If a Python class implements the same three methods as the Model trait, it seems logical it could be adapted to use the solver. However, it is not possible to pass a PyObject to it as it does not implement the Rust trait (even if the Python model has the required methods).

In order to implement the trait, we must write a wrapper around the calls in Rust to the Python model. The method signatures must be the same as the trait, keeping in mind that the Rust trait cannot be changed for the purpose of making the code available in Python.

The Python model we want to expose is the following one, which already contains all the required methods:

class Model:
    def set_variables(self, inputs):
        self.inputs = inputs
    def compute(self):
        self.results = [elt**2 - 3 for elt in self.inputs]
    def get_results(self):
        return self.results

The following wrapper will call the Python model from Rust, using a struct to hold the model as a PyAny object:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyAny;

pub trait Model {
  fn set_variables(&mut self, inputs: &Vec<f64>);
  fn compute(&mut self);
  fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64>;
}

struct UserModel {
    model: Py<PyAny>,
}

impl Model for UserModel {
    fn set_variables(&mut self, var: &Vec<f64>) {
        println!("Rust calling Python to set the variables");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let values: Vec<f64> = var.clone();
            let list: PyObject = values.into_py(py);
            let py_model = self.model.as_ref(py);
            py_model
                .call_method("set_variables", (list,), None)
                .unwrap();
        })
    }

    fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64> {
        println!("Rust calling Python to get the results");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            self.model
                .as_ref(py)
                .call_method("get_results", (), None)
                .unwrap()
                .extract()
                .unwrap()
        })
    }

    fn compute(&mut self) {
        println!("Rust calling Python to perform the computation");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            self.model
                .as_ref(py)
                .call_method("compute", (), None)
                .unwrap();
        })
    }
}
}

Now that this bit is implemented, let's expose the model wrapper to Python. Let's add the PyO3 annotations and add a constructor:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#![allow(dead_code)]
pub trait Model {
  fn set_variables(&mut self, inputs: &Vec<f64>);
  fn compute(&mut self);
  fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64>;
}
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyAny;

#[pyclass]
struct UserModel {
    model: Py<PyAny>,
}

#[pymodule]
fn trait_exposure(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_class::<UserModel>()?;
    Ok(())
}

#[pymethods]
impl UserModel {
    #[new]
    pub fn new(model: Py<PyAny>) -> Self {
        UserModel { model }
    }
}
}

Now we add the PyO3 annotations to the trait implementation:

#[pymethods]
impl Model for UserModel {
  // the previous trait implementation
}

However, the previous code will not compile. The compilation error is the following one: error: #[pymethods] cannot be used on trait impl blocks

That's a bummer! However, we can write a second wrapper around these functions to call them directly. This wrapper will also perform the type conversions between Python and Rust.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyAny;

pub trait Model {
  fn set_variables(&mut self, inputs: &Vec<f64>);
  fn compute(&mut self);
  fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64>;
}

#[pyclass]
struct UserModel {
    model: Py<PyAny>,
}

impl Model for UserModel {
 fn set_variables(&mut self, var: &Vec<f64>) {
     println!("Rust calling Python to set the variables");
     Python::with_gil(|py| {
         let values: Vec<f64> = var.clone();
         let list: PyObject = values.into_py(py);
         let py_model = self.model.as_ref(py);
         py_model
             .call_method("set_variables", (list,), None)
             .unwrap();
     })
 }

 fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64> {
     println!("Rust calling Python to get the results");
     Python::with_gil(|py| {
         self.model
             .as_ref(py)
             .call_method("get_results", (), None)
             .unwrap()
             .extract()
             .unwrap()
     })
 }

 fn compute(&mut self) {
     println!("Rust calling Python to perform the computation");
     Python::with_gil(|py| {
         self.model
             .as_ref(py)
             .call_method("compute", (), None)
             .unwrap();
     })

 }
}

#[pymethods]
impl UserModel {
    pub fn set_variables(&mut self, var: Vec<f64>) {
        println!("Set variables from Python calling Rust");
        Model::set_variables(self, &var)
    }

    pub fn get_results(&mut self) -> Vec<f64> {
        println!("Get results from Python calling Rust");
        Model::get_results(self)
    }

    pub fn compute(&mut self) {
        println!("Compute from Python calling Rust");
        Model::compute(self)
    }
}
}

This wrapper handles the type conversion between the PyO3 requirements and the trait. In order to meet PyO3 requirements, this wrapper must:

  • return an object of type PyResult
  • use only values, not references in the method signatures

Let's run the file python file:

class Model:
    def set_variables(self, inputs):
        self.inputs = inputs
    def compute(self):
        self.results = [elt**2 - 3 for elt in self.inputs]
    def get_results(self):
        return self.results

if __name__=="__main__":
  import trait_exposure

  myModel = Model()
  my_rust_model = trait_exposure.UserModel(myModel)
  my_rust_model.set_variables([2.0])
  print("Print value from Python: ", myModel.inputs)
  my_rust_model.compute()
  print("Print value from Python through Rust: ", my_rust_model.get_results())
  print("Print value directly from Python: ", myModel.get_results())

This outputs:

Set variables from Python calling Rust
Set variables from Rust calling Python
Print value from Python:  [2.0]
Compute from Python calling Rust
Compute from Rust calling Python
Get results from Python calling Rust
Get results from Rust calling Python
Print value from Python through Rust:  [1.0]
Print value directly from Python:  [1.0]

We have now successfully exposed a Rust model that implements the Model trait to Python!

We will now expose the solve function, but before, let's talk about types errors.

Type errors in Python

What happens if you have type errors when using Python and how can you improve the error messages?

Wrong types in Python function arguments

Let's assume in the first case that you will use in your Python file my_rust_model.set_variables(2.0) instead of my_rust_model.set_variables([2.0]).

The Rust signature expects a vector, which corresponds to a list in Python. What happens if instead of a vector, we pass a single value ?

At the execution of Python, we get :

File "main.py", line 15, in <module>
   my_rust_model.set_variables(2)
TypeError

It is a type error and Python points to it, so it's easy to identify and solve.

Wrong types in Python method signatures

Let's assume now that the return type of one of the methods of our Model class is wrong, for example the get_results method that is expected to return a Vec<f64> in Rust, a list in Python.

class Model:
    def set_variables(self, inputs):
        self.inputs = inputs
    def compute(self):
        self.results = [elt**2 -3 for elt in self.inputs]
    def get_results(self):
        return self.results[0]
        #return self.results <-- this is the expected output

This call results in the following panic:

pyo3_runtime.PanicException: called `Result::unwrap()` on an `Err` value: PyErr { type: Py(0x10dcf79f0, PhantomData) }

This error code is not helpful for a Python user that does not know anything about Rust, or someone that does not know PyO3 was used to interface the Rust code.

However, as we are responsible for making the Rust code available to Python, we can do something about it.

The issue is that we called unwrap anywhere we could, and therefore any panic from PyO3 will be directly forwarded to the end user.

Let's modify the code performing the type conversion to give a helpful error message to the Python user:

We used in our get_results method the following call that performs the type conversion:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyAny;

pub trait Model {
  fn set_variables(&mut self, inputs: &Vec<f64>);
  fn compute(&mut self);
  fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64>;
}

#[pyclass]
struct UserModel {
    model: Py<PyAny>,
}

impl Model for UserModel {
    fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64> {
        println!("Rust calling Python to get the results");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            self.model
                .as_ref(py)
                .call_method("get_results", (), None)
                .unwrap()
                .extract()
                .unwrap()
        })
    }
    fn set_variables(&mut self, var: &Vec<f64>) {
        println!("Rust calling Python to set the variables");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let values: Vec<f64> = var.clone();
            let list: PyObject = values.into_py(py);
            let py_model = self.model.as_ref(py);
            py_model
                .call_method("set_variables", (list,), None)
                .unwrap();
        })
    }

    fn compute(&mut self) {
        println!("Rust calling Python to perform the computation");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            self.model
                .as_ref(py)
                .call_method("compute", (), None)
                .unwrap();
        })
    }
}
}

Let's break it down in order to perform better error handling:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyAny;

pub trait Model {
  fn set_variables(&mut self, inputs: &Vec<f64>);
  fn compute(&mut self);
  fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64>;
}

#[pyclass]
struct UserModel {
    model: Py<PyAny>,
}

impl Model for UserModel {
    fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64> {
        println!("Get results from Rust calling Python");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let py_result: &PyAny = self
                .model
                .as_ref(py)
                .call_method("get_results", (), None)
                .unwrap();

            if py_result.get_type().name().unwrap() != "list" {
                panic!("Expected a list for the get_results() method signature, got {}", py_result.get_type().name().unwrap());
            }
            py_result.extract()
        })
        .unwrap()
    }
    fn set_variables(&mut self, var: &Vec<f64>) {
        println!("Rust calling Python to set the variables");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let values: Vec<f64> = var.clone();
            let list: PyObject = values.into_py(py);
            let py_model = self.model.as_ref(py);
            py_model
                .call_method("set_variables", (list,), None)
                .unwrap();
        })
    }

    fn compute(&mut self) {
        println!("Rust calling Python to perform the computation");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            self.model
                .as_ref(py)
                .call_method("compute", (), None)
                .unwrap();
        })
    }
}
}

By doing so, you catch the result of the Python computation and check its type in order to be able to deliver a better error message before performing the unwrapping.

Of course, it does not cover all the possible wrong outputs: the user could return a list of strings instead of a list of floats. In this case, a runtime panic would still occur due to PyO3, but with an error message much more difficult to decipher for non-rust user.

It is up to the developer exposing the rust code to decide how much effort to invest into Python type error handling and improved error messages.

The final code

Now let's expose the solve() function to make it available from Python.

It is not possible to directly expose the solve function to Python, as the type conversion cannot be performed. It requires an object implementing the Model trait as input.

However, the UserModel already implements this trait. Because of this, we can write a function wrapper that takes the UserModel--which has already been exposed to Python--as an argument in order to call the core function solve.

It is also required to make the struct public.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyAny;

pub trait Model {
    fn set_variables(&mut self, var: &Vec<f64>);
    fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64>;
    fn compute(&mut self);
}

pub fn solve<T: Model>(model: &mut T) {
  println!("Magic solver that mutates the model into a resolved state");
}

#[pyfunction]
#[pyo3(name = "solve")]
pub fn solve_wrapper(model: &mut UserModel) {
    solve(model);
}

#[pyclass]
pub struct UserModel {
    model: Py<PyAny>,
}

#[pymodule]
fn trait_exposure(_py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_class::<UserModel>()?;
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(solve_wrapper, m)?)?;
    Ok(())
}

#[pymethods]
impl UserModel {
    #[new]
    pub fn new(model: Py<PyAny>) -> Self {
        UserModel { model }
    }

    pub fn set_variables(&mut self, var: Vec<f64>) {
        println!("Set variables from Python calling Rust");
        Model::set_variables(self, &var)
    }

    pub fn get_results(&mut self) -> Vec<f64> {
        println!("Get results from Python calling Rust");
        Model::get_results(self)
    }

    pub fn compute(&mut self) {
        Model::compute(self)
    }
}

impl Model for UserModel {
    fn set_variables(&mut self, var: &Vec<f64>) {
        println!("Rust calling Python to set the variables");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let values: Vec<f64> = var.clone();
            let list: PyObject = values.into_py(py);
            let py_model = self.model.as_ref(py);
            py_model
                .call_method("set_variables", (list,), None)
                .unwrap();
        })
    }

    fn get_results(&self) -> Vec<f64> {
        println!("Get results from Rust calling Python");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let py_result: &PyAny = self
                .model
                .as_ref(py)
                .call_method("get_results", (), None)
                .unwrap();

            if py_result.get_type().name().unwrap() != "list" {
                panic!("Expected a list for the get_results() method signature, got {}", py_result.get_type().name().unwrap());
            }
            py_result.extract()
        })
        .unwrap()
    }

    fn compute(&mut self) {
        println!("Rust calling Python to perform the computation");
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            self.model
                .as_ref(py)
                .call_method("compute", (), None)
                .unwrap();
        })
    }
}
}

Typing and IDE hints for you Python package

PyO3 provides an easy to use interface to code native Python libraries in Rust. The accompanying Maturin allows you to build and publish them as a package. Yet, for the better user experience, Python libraries should provide typing hints and documentation for all public entities, so that IDEs can show them during development and type analyzing tools such as mypy can use them to properly verify the code.

Currently the best solution for the problem is to maintain manually the *.pyi files and ship them along with the package.

The pyi files introduction

pyi (an abbreviation for Python Interface) is called a Stub File in most of the documentations related to them. Very good definition of what it is can be found in old MyPy documentation:

A stubs file only contains a description of the public interface of the module without any implementations.

Probably most Python developers encountered them already when trying to use the IDE "Go to Definition" function on any builtin type. For example the definitions of few standard exceptions look like this:

class BaseException(object):
    args: Tuple[Any, ...]
    __cause__: BaseException | None
    __context__: BaseException | None
    __suppress_context__: bool
    __traceback__: TracebackType | None
    def __init__(self, *args: object) -> None: ...
    def __str__(self) -> str: ...
    def __repr__(self) -> str: ...
    def with_traceback(self: _TBE, tb: TracebackType | None) -> _TBE: ...

class SystemExit(BaseException):
    code: int

class Exception(BaseException): ...

class StopIteration(Exception):
    value: Any

As we can see those are not full definitions containing implementation, but just a description of interface. It is usually all that is needed by the user of the library.

What does the PEPs say?

As of the time of writing this documentation the pyi files are referenced in three PEPs.

PEP8 - Style Guide for Python Code - #Function Annotations (last point) recommends all third party library creators to provide stub files as the source of knowledge about the package for type checker tools.

(...) it is expected that users of third party library packages may want to run type checkers over those packages. For this purpose PEP 484 recommends the use of stub files: .pyi files that are read by the type checker in preference of the corresponding .py files. (...)

PEP484 - Type Hints - #Stub Files defines stub files as follows.

Stub files are files containing type hints that are only for use by the type checker, not at runtime.

It contains a specification for them (highly recommended reading, since it contains at least one thing that is not used in normal Python code) and also some general information about where to store the stub files.

PEP561 - Distributing and Packaging Type Information describes in detail how to build packages that will enable type checking. In particular it contains information about how the stub files must be distributed in order for type checkers to use them.

How to do it?

PEP561 recognizes three ways of distributing type information:

  • inline - the typing is placed directly in source (py) files;
  • separate package with stub files - the typing is placed in pyi files distributed in their own, separate package;
  • in-package stub files - the typing is placed in pyi files distributed in the same package as source files.

The first way is tricky with PyO3 since we do not have py files. When it will be investigated and necessary changes are implemented, this document will be updated.

The second way is easy to do, and the whole work can be fully separated from the main library code. The example repo for the package with stub files can be found in PEP561 references section: Stub package repository

The third way is described below.

Including pyi files in your PyO3/Maturin build package

When source files are in the same package as stub files, they should be placed next to each other. We need a way to do that with Maturin. Also, in order to mark our package as typing-enabled we need to add an empty file named py.typed to the package.

If you do not have other Python files

If you do not need to add any other Python files apart from pyi to the package, the Maturin provides a way to do most of the work for you. As documented in Maturin Guide the only thing you need to do is create a stub file for your module named <module_name>.pyi in your project root and Maturin will do the rest.

my-rust-project/
β”œβ”€β”€ Cargo.toml
β”œβ”€β”€ my_project.pyi  # <<< add type stubs for Rust functions in the my_project module here
β”œβ”€β”€ pyproject.toml
└── src
    └── lib.rs

For example of pyi file see my_project.pyi content section.

If you need other Python files

If you need to add other Python files apart from pyi to the package, you can do it also, but that requires some more work. Maturin provides easy way to add files to package (documentation). You just need to create a folder with the name of your module next to the Cargo.toml file (for customization see documentation linked above).

The folder structure would be:

my-project
β”œβ”€β”€ Cargo.toml
β”œβ”€β”€ my_project
β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ __init__.py
β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ my_project.pyi
β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ other_python_file.py
β”‚   └── py.typed
β”œβ”€β”€ pyproject.toml
β”œβ”€β”€ Readme.md
└── src
    └── lib.rs

Let's go a little bit more into details on the files inside the package folder.

__init__.py content

As we now specify our own package content, we have to provide the __init__.py file, so the folder is treated as a package and we can import things from it. We can always use the same content that the Maturin creates for us if we do not specify a python source folder. For PyO3 bindings it would be:

from .my_project import *

That way everything that is exposed by our native module can be imported directly from the package.

py.typed requirement

As stated in PEP561:

Package maintainers who wish to support type checking of their code MUST add a marker file named py.typed to their package supporting typing. This marker applies recursively: if a top-level package includes it, all its sub-packages MUST support type checking as well.

If we do not include that file, some IDEs might still use our pyi files to show hints, but the type checkers might not. MyPy will raise an error in this situation:

error: Skipping analyzing "my_project": found module but no type hints or library stubs

The file is just a marker file, so it should be empty.

my_project.pyi content

Our module stub file. This document does not aim at describing how to write them, since you can find a lot of documentation on it, starting from already quoted PEP484.

The example can look like this:

class Car:
    """
    A class representing a car.

    :param body_type: the name of body type, e.g. hatchback, sedan
    :param horsepower: power of the engine in horsepower
    """
    def __init__(self, body_type: str, horsepower: int) -> None: ...

    @classmethod
    def from_unique_name(cls, name: str) -> 'Car':
        """
        Creates a Car based on unique name

        :param name: model name of a car to be created
        :return: a Car instance with default data
        """

    def best_color(self) -> str:
        """
        Gets the best color for the car.

        :return: the name of the color our great algorithm thinks is the best for this car
        """

Changelog

All notable changes to this project will be documented in this file. For help with updating to new PyO3 versions, please see the migration guide.

The format is based on Keep a Changelog and this project adheres to Semantic Versioning.

Unreleased

Added

  • Implement ToPyObject for [T; N]. #2313
  • Added the internal IntoPyResult trait to give better error messages when function return types do not implement IntoPy. #2326
  • Add PyDictKeys, PyDictValues and PyDictItems Rust types to represent dict_keys, dict_values and dict_items types. #2358
  • Add macro append_to_inittab. #2377
  • Add FFI definition PyFrame_GetCode. #2406
  • Added PyCode and PyFrame high level objects. #2408
  • Add FFI definitions Py_fstring_input, sendfunc, and _PyErr_StackItem. #2423
  • Add PyDateTime::new_with_fold, PyTime::new_with_fold, PyTime::get_fold, PyDateTime::get_fold for PyPy. #2428
  • Allow #[classattr] take Python argument. #2383
  • Add CompareOp::matches to easily implement __richcmp__ as the result of a Rust std::cmp::Ordering comparison. #2460
  • Supprt #[pyo3(name)] on enum variants #2457

Changed

  • Several methods of Py and PyAny now accept impl IntoPy<Py<PyString>> rather than just &str to allow use of the intern! macro. #2312
  • Move PyTypeObject::type_object method to PyTypeInfo trait, and deprecate PyTypeObject trait. #2287
  • The deprecated pyproto feature is now disabled by default. #2322
  • Deprecate ToBorrowedObject trait (it is only used as a wrapper for ToPyObject). #2333
  • impl<T, const N: usize> IntoPy<PyObject> for [T; N] now requires T: IntoPy rather than T: ToPyObject. #2326
  • Correct wrap_pymodule to match normal namespacing rules: it no longer "sees through" glob imports of use submodule::* when submodule::submodule is a #[pymodule]. #2363
  • Allow #[classattr] methods to be fallible. #2385
  • Prevent multiple #[pymethods] with the same name for a single #[pyclass]. #2399
  • Fixup lib_name when using PYO3_CONFIG_FILE. #2404
  • Iterators over PySet and PyDict will now panic if the underlying collection is mutated during the iteration. #2380

Fixed

  • Fixed incorrectly disabled FFI definition PyThreadState_DeleteCurrent. #2357
  • Correct FFI definition PyEval_EvalCodeEx to take *const *mut PyObject array arguments instead of *mut *mut PyObject (this was changed in CPython 3.6). #2368
  • Fix "raw-ident" structs (e.g. #[pyclass] struct r#RawName) incorrectly having r# at the start of the class name created in Python. #2395
  • Correct FFI definition Py_tracefunc to be unsafe extern "C" fn (was previously safe). #2407
  • Fix case where ValueError without message could be raised by the #[derive(FromPyObject)] generated implementation for a tuple struct. #2414
  • Fix compile failure when using #[pyo3(from_py_with = "pouf")] in on a field in a #[derive(FromPyObject)] struct. #2414
  • Fix FFI definitions _PyDateTime_BaseTime and _PyDateTime_BaseDateTime lacking leading underscores in their names. #2421
  • Remove FFI definition PyArena on Python 3.10 and up. #2421
  • Fix FFI definition PyCompilerFlags missing member cf_feature_version on Python 3.8 and up. #2423
  • Fix FFI definition PyAsyncMethods missing member am_send on Python 3.10 and up. #2423
  • Fix FFI definition PyGenObject having multiple incorrect members on various Python versions. #2423
  • Fix FFI definition PySyntaxErrorObject missing members end_lineno and end_offset on Python 3.10 and up. #2423
  • Fix FFI definition PyHeapTypeObject missing member ht_module on Python 3.9 and up. #2423
  • Fix FFI definition PyFrameObject having multiple incorrect members on various Python versions. #2424
  • Fix FFI definition PyTypeObject missing deprecated field tp_print on Python 3.8. #2428
  • Fix FFI definitions PyDateTime_CAPI. PyDateTime_Date, PyASCIIObject, PyBaseExceptionObject, PyListObject, and PyTypeObject on PyPy. #2428
  • Fix FFI definition _inittab field initfunc typo'd as initfun. #2431
  • Fix FFI definitions _PyDateTime_BaseTime and _PyDateTime_BaseDateTime incorrectly having fold member. #2432
  • Fix FFI definitions PyTypeObject. PyHeapTypeObject, and PyCFunctionObject having incorrect members on PyPy 3.9. #2428
  • Fix FFI definition PyGetSetDef to have *const c_char for doc member (not *mut c_char). #2439
  • Fix #[pyo3(from_py_with = "...")] being ignored for 1-element tuple structs and transparent structs. #2440
  • Use memoffset for computing PyCell offsets #2450
  • Fix incorrect enum names being returned by repr for enums renamed by #[pyclass(name)] #2457

0.16.5 - 2022-05-15

Added

  • Add an experimental generate-import-lib feature to support auto-generating non-abi3 python import libraries for Windows targets. #2364
  • Add FFI definition Py_ExitStatusException. #2374

Changed

  • Deprecate experimental generate-abi3-import-lib feature in favor of the new generate-import-lib feature. #2364

Fixed

  • Added missing warn_default_encoding field to PyConfig on 3.10+. The previously missing field could result in incorrect behavior or crashes. #2370
  • Fixed order of pathconfig_warnings and program_name fields of PyConfig on 3.10+. Previously, the order of the fields was swapped and this could lead to incorrect behavior or crashes. #2370

0.16.4 - 2022-04-14

Added

  • Add PyTzInfoAccess trait for safe access to time zone information. #2263
  • Add an experimental generate-abi3-import-lib feature to auto-generate python3.dll import libraries for Windows. #2282
  • Add FFI definitions for PyDateTime_BaseTime and PyDateTime_BaseDateTime. #2294

Changed

  • Improved performance of failing calls to FromPyObject::extract which is common when functions accept multiple distinct types. #2279
  • Default to "m" ABI tag when choosing libpython link name for CPython 3.7 on Unix. #2288
  • Allow to compile "abi3" extensions without a working build host Python interpreter. #2293

Fixed

  • Crates depending on PyO3 can collect code coverage via LLVM instrumentation using stable Rust. #2286
  • Fix segfault when calling FFI methods PyDateTime_DATE_GET_TZINFO or PyDateTime_TIME_GET_TZINFO on datetime or time without a tzinfo. #2289
  • Fix directory names starting with the letter n breaking serialization of the interpreter configuration on Windows since PyO3 0.16.3. #2299

0.16.3 - 2022-04-05

Packaging

  • Extend parking_lot dependency supported versions to include 0.12. #2239

Added

  • Add methods to pyo3_build_config::InterpreterConfig to run Python scripts using the configured executable. #2092
  • Add as_bytes method to Py<PyBytes>. #2235
  • Add FFI definitions for PyType_FromModuleAndSpec, PyType_GetModule, PyType_GetModuleState and PyModule_AddType. #2250
  • Add pyo3_build_config::cross_compiling_from_to as a helper to detect when PyO3 is cross-compiling. #2253
  • Add #[pyclass(mapping)] option to leave sequence slots empty in container implementations. #2265
  • Add PyString::intern to enable usage of the Python's built-in string interning. #2268
  • Add intern! macro which can be used to amortize the cost of creating Python strings by storing them inside a GILOnceCell. #2269
  • Add PYO3_CROSS_PYTHON_IMPLEMENTATION environment variable for selecting the default cross Python implementation. #2272

Changed

  • Allow #[pyo3(crate = "...", text_signature = "...")] options to be used directly in #[pyclass(crate = "...", text_signature = "...")]. #2234
  • Make PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR environment variable optional when cross compiling. #2241
  • Mark METH_FASTCALL calling convention as limited API on Python 3.10. #2250
  • Deprecate pyo3_build_config::cross_compiling in favour of pyo3_build_config::cross_compiling_from_to. #2253

Fixed

  • Fix abi3-py310 feature: use Python 3.10 ABI when available instead of silently falling back to the 3.9 ABI. #2242
  • Use shared linking mode when cross compiling against a Framework bundle for macOS. #2233
  • Fix panic during compilation when PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR is set for some host/target combinations. #2232
  • Correct dependency version for syn to require minimal patch version 1.0.56. #2240

0.16.2 - 2022-03-15

Packaging

  • Warn when modules are imported on PyPy 3.7 versions older than PyPy 7.3.8, as they are known to have binary compatibility issues. #2217
  • Ensure build script of pyo3-ffi runs before that of pyo3 to fix cross compilation. #2224

0.16.1 - 2022-03-05

Packaging

  • Extend hashbrown optional dependency supported versions to include 0.12. #2197

Fixed

  • Fix incorrect platform detection for Windows in pyo3-build-config. #2198
  • Fix regression from 0.16 preventing cross compiling to aarch64 macOS. #2201

0.16.0 - 2022-02-27

Packaging

  • Update MSRV to Rust 1.48. #2004
  • Update indoc optional dependency to 1.0. #2004
  • Drop support for Python 3.6, remove abi3-py36 feature. #2006
  • pyo3-build-config no longer enables the resolve-config feature by default. #2008
  • Update inventory optional dependency to 0.2. #2019
  • Drop paste dependency. #2081
  • The bindings found in pyo3::ffi are now a re-export of a separate pyo3-ffi crate. #2126
  • Support PyPy 3.9. #2143

Added

  • Add PyCapsule type exposing the Capsule API. #1980
  • Add pyo3_build_config::Sysconfigdata and supporting APIs. #1996
  • Add Py::setattr method. #2009
  • Add #[pyo3(crate = "some::path")] option to all attribute macros (except the deprecated #[pyproto]). #2022
  • Enable create_exception! macro to take an optional docstring. #2027
  • Enable #[pyclass] for fieldless (aka C-like) enums. #2034
  • Add buffer magic methods __getbuffer__ and __releasebuffer__ to #[pymethods]. #2067
  • Add support for paths in wrap_pyfunction and wrap_pymodule. #2081
  • Enable wrap_pyfunction! to wrap a #[pyfunction] implemented in a different Rust module or crate. #2091
  • Add PyAny::contains method (in operator for PyAny). #2115
  • Add PyMapping::contains method (in operator for PyMapping). #2133
  • Add garbage collection magic magic methods __traverse__ and __clear__ to #[pymethods]. #2159
  • Add support for from_py_with on struct tuples and enums to override the default from-Python conversion. #2181
  • Add eq, ne, lt, le, gt, ge methods to PyAny that wrap rich_compare. #2175
  • Add Py::is and PyAny::is methods to check for object identity. #2183
  • Add support for the __getattribute__ magic method. #2187

Changed

  • PyType::is_subclass, PyErr::is_instance and PyAny::is_instance now operate run-time type object instead of a type known at compile-time. The old behavior is still available as PyType::is_subclass_of, PyErr::is_instance_of and PyAny::is_instance_of. #1985
  • Rename some methods on PyErr (the old names are just marked deprecated for now): #2026
    • pytype -> get_type
    • pvalue -> value (and deprecate equivalent instance)
    • ptraceback -> traceback
    • from_instance -> from_value
    • into_instance -> into_value
  • PyErr::new_type now takes an optional docstring and now returns PyResult<Py<PyType>> rather than a ffi::PyTypeObject pointer. #2027
  • Deprecate PyType::is_instance; it is inconsistent with other is_instance methods in PyO3. Instead of typ.is_instance(obj), use obj.is_instance(typ). #2031
  • __getitem__, __setitem__ and __delitem__ in #[pymethods] now implement both a Python mapping and sequence by default. #2065
  • Improve performance and error messages for #[derive(FromPyObject)] for enums. #2068
  • Reduce generated LLVM code size (to improve compile times) for:
  • Respect Rust privacy rules for items wrapped with wrap_pyfunction and wrap_pymodule. #2081
  • Add modulo argument to __ipow__ magic method. #2083
  • Fix FFI definition for _PyCFunctionFast. #2126
  • PyDateTimeAPI and PyDateTime_TimeZone_UTC are are now unsafe functions instead of statics. #2126
  • PyDateTimeAPI does not implicitly call PyDateTime_IMPORT anymore to reflect the original Python API more closely. Before the first call to PyDateTime_IMPORT a null pointer is returned. Therefore before calling any of the following FFI functions PyDateTime_IMPORT must be called to avoid undefined behaviour: #2126
    • PyDateTime_TimeZone_UTC
    • PyDate_Check
    • PyDate_CheckExact
    • PyDateTime_Check
    • PyDateTime_CheckExact
    • PyTime_Check
    • PyTime_CheckExact
    • PyDelta_Check
    • PyDelta_CheckExact
    • PyTZInfo_Check
    • PyTZInfo_CheckExact
    • PyDateTime_FromTimestamp
    • PyDate_FromTimestamp
  • Deprecate the gc option for pyclass (e.g. #[pyclass(gc)]). Just implement a __traverse__ #[pymethod]. #2159
  • The ml_meth field of PyMethodDef is now represented by the PyMethodDefPointer union. 2166
  • Deprecate the #[pyproto] traits. #2173

Removed

  • Remove all functionality deprecated in PyO3 0.14. #2007
  • Remove Default impl for PyMethodDef. #2166
  • Remove PartialEq impl for Py and PyAny (use the new is() instead). #2183

Fixed

  • Fix undefined symbol for PyObject_HasAttr on PyPy. #2025
  • Fix memory leak in PyErr::into_value. #2026
  • Fix clippy warning needless-option-as-deref in code generated by #[pyfunction] and #[pymethods]. #2040
  • Fix undefined behavior in PySlice::indices. #2061
  • Fix the wrap_pymodule! macro using the wrong name for a #[pymodule] with a #[pyo3(name = "..")] attribute. #2081
  • Fix magic methods in #[pymethods] accepting implementations with the wrong number of arguments. #2083
  • Fix panic in #[pyfunction] generated code when a required argument following an Option was not provided. #2093
  • Fixed undefined behaviour caused by incorrect ExactSizeIterator implementations. #2124
  • Fix missing FFI definition PyCMethod_New on Python 3.9 and up. #2143
  • Add missing FFI definitions _PyLong_NumBits and _PyLong_AsByteArray on PyPy. #2146
  • Fix memory leak in implementation of AsPyPointer for Option<T>. #2160
  • Fix FFI definition of _PyLong_NumBits to return size_t instead of c_int. #2161
  • Fix TypeError thrown when argument parsing failed missing the originating causes. 2177

0.15.2 - 2022-04-14

Packaging

  • Backport of PyPy 3.9 support from PyO3 0.16. #2262

0.15.1 - 2021-11-19

Added

  • Add implementations for Py::as_ref() and Py::into_ref() for Py<PySequence>, Py<PyIterator> and Py<PyMapping>. #1682
  • Add PyTraceback type to represent and format Python tracebacks. #1977

Changed

  • #[classattr] constants with a known magic method name (which is lowercase) no longer trigger lint warnings expecting constants to be uppercase. #1969

Fixed

  • Fix creating #[classattr] by functions with the name of a known magic method. #1969
  • Fix use of catch_unwind in allow_threads which can cause fatal crashes. #1989
  • Fix build failure on PyPy when abi3 features are activated. #1991
  • Fix mingw platform detection. #1993
  • Fix panic in __get__ implementation when accessing descriptor on type object. #1997

0.15.0 - 2021-11-03

Packaging

  • pyo3's Cargo.toml now advertises links = "python" to inform Cargo that it links against libpython. #1819
  • Added optional anyhow feature to convert anyhow::Error into PyErr. #1822
  • Support Python 3.10. #1889
  • Added optional eyre feature to convert eyre::Report into PyErr. #1893
  • Support PyPy 3.8. #1948

Added

  • Add PyList::get_item_unchecked and PyTuple::get_item_unchecked to get items without bounds checks. #1733
  • Support #[doc = include_str!(...)] attributes on Rust 1.54 and up. #1746
  • Add PyAny::py as a convenience for PyNativeType::py. #1751
  • Add implementation of std::ops::Index<usize> for PyList, PyTuple and PySequence. #1825
  • Add range indexing implementations of std::ops::Index for PyList, PyTuple and PySequence. #1829
  • Add PyMapping type to represent the Python mapping protocol. #1844
  • Add commonly-used sequence methods to PyList and PyTuple. #1849
  • Add as_sequence methods to PyList and PyTuple. #1860
  • Add support for magic methods in #[pymethods], intended as a replacement for #[pyproto]. #1864
  • Add abi3-py310 feature. #1889
  • Add PyCFunction::new_closure to create a Python function from a Rust closure. #1901
  • Add support for positional-only arguments in #[pyfunction]. #1925
  • Add PyErr::take to attempt to fetch a Python exception if present. #1957

Changed

  • PyList, PyTuple and PySequence's APIs now accepts only usize indices instead of isize. #1733, #1802, #1803
  • PyList::get_item and PyTuple::get_item now return PyResult<&PyAny> instead of panicking. #1733
  • PySequence::in_place_repeat and PySequence::in_place_concat now return PyResult<&PySequence> instead of PyResult<()>, which is needed in case of immutable sequences such as tuples. #1803
  • PySequence::get_slice now returns PyResult<&PySequence> instead of PyResult<&PyAny>. #1829
  • Deprecate PyTuple::split_from. #1804
  • Deprecate PyTuple::slice, new method PyTuple::get_slice added with usize indices. #1828
  • Deprecate FFI definitions PyParser_SimpleParseStringFlags, PyParser_SimpleParseStringFlagsFilename, PyParser_SimpleParseFileFlags when building for Python 3.9. #1830
  • Mark FFI definitions removed in Python 3.10 PyParser_ASTFromString, PyParser_ASTFromStringObject, PyParser_ASTFromFile, PyParser_ASTFromFileObject, PyParser_SimpleParseStringFlags, PyParser_SimpleParseStringFlagsFilename, PyParser_SimpleParseFileFlags, PyParser_SimpleParseString, PyParser_SimpleParseFile, Py_SymtableString, and Py_SymtableStringObject. #1830
  • #[pymethods] now handles magic methods similarly to #[pyproto]. In the future, #[pyproto] may be deprecated. #1864
  • Deprecate FFI definitions PySys_AddWarnOption, PySys_AddWarnOptionUnicode and PySys_HasWarnOptions. #1887
  • Deprecate #[call] attribute in favor of using fn __call__. #1929
  • Fix missing FFI definition _PyImport_FindExtensionObject on Python 3.10. #1942
  • Change PyErr::fetch to panic in debug mode if no exception is present. #1957

Fixed

  • Fix building with a conda environment on Windows. #1873
  • Fix panic on Python 3.6 when calling Python::with_gil with Python initialized but threading not initialized. #1874
  • Fix incorrect linking to version-specific DLL instead of python3.dll when cross-compiling to Windows with abi3. #1880
  • Fix FFI definition for PyTuple_ClearFreeList incorrectly being present for Python 3.9 and up. #1887
  • Fix panic in generated #[derive(FromPyObject)] for enums. #1888
  • Fix cross-compiling to Python 3.7 builds with the "m" abi flag. #1908
  • Fix __mod__ magic method fallback to __rmod__. #1934.
  • Fix missing FFI definition _PyImport_FindExtensionObject on Python 3.10. #1942

0.14.5 - 2021-09-05

Added

  • Make pyo3_build_config::InterpreterConfig and subfields public. #1848
  • Add resolve-config feature to the pyo3-build-config to control whether its build script does anything. #1856

Fixed

  • Fix 0.14.4 compile regression on s390x-unknown-linux-gnu target. #1850

0.14.4 - 2021-08-29

Changed

  • Mark PyString::data as unsafe and disable it and some supporting PyUnicode FFI APIs (which depend on a C bitfield) on big-endian targets. #1834

0.14.3 - 2021-08-22

Added

  • Add PyString::data to access the raw bytes stored in a Python string. #1794

Fixed

  • Raise AttributeError to avoid panic when calling del on a #[setter] defined class property. #1779
  • Restrict FFI definitions PyGILState_Check and Py_tracefunc to the unlimited API. #1787
  • Add missing _type field to PyStatus struct definition. #1791
  • Reduce lower bound num-complex optional dependency to support interop with rust-numpy and ndarray when building with the MSRV of 1.41 #1799
  • Fix memory leak in Python::run_code. #1806
  • Fix memory leak in PyModule::from_code. #1810
  • Remove use of pyo3:: in pyo3::types::datetime which broke builds using -Z avoid-dev-deps #1811

0.14.2 - 2021-08-09

Added

  • Add indexmap feature to add ToPyObject, IntoPy and FromPyObject implementations for indexmap::IndexMap. #1728
  • Add pyo3_build_config::add_extension_module_link_args to use in build scripts to set linker arguments (for macOS). #1755
  • Add Python::with_gil_unchecked unsafe variation of Python::with_gil to allow obtaining a Python in scenarios where Python::with_gil would fail. #1769

Changed

  • PyErr::new no longer acquires the Python GIL internally. #1724
  • Reverted PyO3 0.14.0's use of cargo:rustc-cdylib-link-arg in its build script, as Cargo unintentionally allowed crates to pass linker args to downstream crates in this way. Projects supporting macOS may need to restore .cargo/config.toml files. #1755

Fixed

  • Fix regression in 0.14.0 rejecting usage of #[doc(hidden)] on structs and functions annotated with PyO3 macros. #1722
  • Fix regression in 0.14.0 leading to incorrect code coverage being computed for #[pyfunction]s. #1726
  • Fix incorrect FFI definition of Py_Buffer on PyPy. #1737
  • Fix incorrect calculation of dictoffset on 32-bit Windows. #1475
  • Fix regression in 0.13.2 leading to linking to incorrect Python library on Windows "gnu" targets. #1759
  • Fix compiler warning: deny trailing semicolons in expression macro. #1762
  • Fix incorrect FFI definition of Py_DecodeLocale. The 2nd argument is now *mut Py_ssize_t instead of Py_ssize_t. #1766

0.14.1 - 2021-07-04

Added

  • Implement IntoPy<PyObject> for &PathBuf and &OsString. #1712

Fixed

  • Fix crashes on PyPy due to incorrect definitions of PyList_SET_ITEM. #1713

0.14.0 - 2021-07-03

Packaging

  • Update num-bigint optional dependency to 0.4. #1481
  • Update num-complex optional dependency to 0.4. #1482
  • Extend hashbrown optional dependency supported versions to include 0.11. #1496
  • Support PyPy 3.7. #1538

Added

  • Extend conversions for [T; N] to all N using const generics (on Rust 1.51 and up). #1128
  • Add conversions between OsStr/ OsString and Python strings. #1379
  • Add conversions between Path/ PathBuf and Python strings (and pathlib.Path objects). #1379 #1654
  • Add a new set of #[pyo3(...)] attributes to control various PyO3 macro functionality:
    • #[pyo3(from_py_with = "...")] function arguments and struct fields to override the default from-Python conversion. #1411
    • #[pyo3(name = "...")] for setting Python names. #1567
    • #[pyo3(text_signature = "...")] for setting text signature. #1658
  • Add FFI definition PyCFunction_CheckExact for Python 3.9 and later. #1425
  • Add FFI definition Py_IS_TYPE. #1429
  • Add FFI definition _Py_InitializeMain. #1473
  • Add FFI definitions from cpython/import.h.#1475
  • Add tuple and unit struct support for #[pyclass] macro. #1504
  • Add FFI definition PyDateTime_TimeZone_UTC. #1572
  • Add support for #[pyclass(extends=Exception)]. #1591
  • Add PyErr::cause and PyErr::set_cause. #1679
  • Add FFI definitions from cpython/pystate.h. #1687
  • Add wrap_pyfunction! macro to pyo3::prelude. #1695

Changed

  • Allow only one #[pymethods] block per #[pyclass] by default, to remove the dependency on inventory. Add a multiple-pymethods feature to opt-in the original behavior and dependency on inventory. #1457
  • Change PyTimeAccess::get_fold to return a bool instead of a u8. #1397
  • Deprecate FFI definition PyCFunction_Call for Python 3.9 and up. #1425
  • Deprecate FFI definition PyModule_GetFilename. #1425
  • The auto-initialize feature is no longer enabled by default. #1443
  • Change PyCFunction::new and PyCFunction::new_with_keywords to take &'static str arguments rather than implicitly copying (and leaking) them. #1450
  • Deprecate PyModule::call, PyModule::call0, PyModule::call1 and PyModule::get. #1492
  • Add length information to PyBufferErrors raised from PyBuffer::copy_to_slice and PyBuffer::copy_from_slice. #1534
  • Automatically set -undefined and dynamic_lookup linker arguments on macOS with the extension-module feature. #1539
  • Deprecate #[pyproto] methods which are easier to implement as #[pymethods]: #1560
    • PyBasicProtocol::__bytes__ and PyBasicProtocol::__format__
    • PyContextProtocol::__enter__ and PyContextProtocol::__exit__
    • PyDescrProtocol::__delete__ and PyDescrProtocol::__set_name__
    • PyMappingProtocol::__reversed__
    • PyNumberProtocol::__complex__ and PyNumberProtocol::__round__
    • PyAsyncProtocol::__aenter__ and PyAsyncProtocol::__aexit__
  • Deprecate several attributes in favor of the new #[pyo3(...)] options:
    • #[name = "..."], replaced by #[pyo3(name = "...")] #1567
    • #[pyfn(m, "name")], replaced by #[pyfn(m)] #[pyo3(name = "...")]. #1610
    • #[pymodule(name)], replaced by #[pymodule] #[pyo3(name = "...")] #1650
    • #[text_signature = "..."], replaced by #[pyo3(text_signature = "...")]. #1658
  • Reduce LLVM line counts to improve compilation times. #1604
  • No longer call PyEval_InitThreads in #[pymodule] init code. #1630
  • Use METH_FASTCALL argument passing convention, when possible, to improve #[pyfunction] and method performance. #1619, #1660
  • Filter sysconfigdata candidates by architecture when cross-compiling. #1626

Removed

  • Remove deprecated exception names BaseException etc. #1426
  • Remove deprecated methods Python::is_instance, Python::is_subclass, Python::release, Python::xdecref, and Py::from_owned_ptr_or_panic. #1426
  • Remove many FFI definitions which never existed in the Python C-API:
    • (previously deprecated) PyGetSetDef_INIT, PyGetSetDef_DICT, PyCoro_Check, PyCoroWrapper_Check, and PyAsyncGen_Check #1426
    • PyMethodDef_INIT #1426
    • PyTypeObject_INIT #1429
    • PyObject_Check, PySuper_Check, and FreeFunc #1438
    • PyModuleDef_INIT #1630
  • Remove pyclass implementation details from PyTypeInfo:
    • Type, DESCRIPTION, and FLAGS #1456
    • BaseType, BaseLayout, Layout, Initializer #1596
  • Remove PYO3_CROSS_INCLUDE_DIR environment variable and the associated C header parsing functionality. #1521
  • Remove raw_pycfunction! macro. #1619
  • Remove PyClassAlloc trait. #1657
  • Remove PyList::get_parked_item. #1664

Fixed

  • Remove FFI definition PyCFunction_ClearFreeList for Python 3.9 and later. #1425
  • PYO3_CROSS_LIB_DIR environment variable no long required when compiling for x86-64 Python from macOS arm64 and reverse. #1428
  • Fix FFI definition _PyEval_RequestCodeExtraIndex, which took an argument of the wrong type. #1429
  • Fix FFI definition PyIndex_Check missing with the abi3 feature. #1436
  • Fix incorrect TypeError raised when keyword-only argument passed along with a positional argument in *args. #1440
  • Fix inability to use a named lifetime for &PyTuple of *args in #[pyfunction]. #1440
  • Fix use of Python argument for #[pymethods] inside macro expansions. #1505
  • No longer include __doc__ in __all__ generated for #[pymodule]. #1509
  • Always use cross-compiling configuration if any of the PYO3_CROSS family of environment variables are set. #1514
  • Support EnvironmentError, IOError, and WindowsError on PyPy. #1533
  • Fix unnecessary rebuilds when cycling between cargo check and cargo clippy in a Python virtualenv. #1557
  • Fix segfault when dereferencing ffi::PyDateTimeAPI without the GIL. #1563
  • Fix memory leak in FromPyObject implementations for u128 and i128. #1638
  • Fix #[pyclass(extends=PyDict)] leaking the dict contents on drop. #1657
  • Fix segfault when calling PyList::get_item with negative indices. #1668
  • Fix FFI definitions of PyEval_SetProfile/PyEval_SetTrace to take Option<Py_tracefunc> parameters. #1692
  • Fix ToPyObject impl for HashSet to accept non-default hashers. #1702

0.13.2 - 2021-02-12

Packaging

  • Lower minimum supported Rust version to 1.41. #1421

Added

  • Add unsafe API with_embedded_python_interpreter to initialize a Python interpreter, execute a closure, and finalize the interpreter. #1355
  • Add serde feature which provides implementations of Serialize and Deserialize for Py<T>. #1366
  • Add FFI definition _PyCFunctionFastWithKeywords on Python 3.7 and up. #1384
  • Add PyDateTime::new_with_fold method. #1398
  • Add size_hint impls for {PyDict,PyList,PySet,PyTuple}Iterators. #1699

Changed

  • prepare_freethreaded_python will no longer register an atexit handler to call Py_Finalize. This resolves a number of issues with incompatible C extensions causing crashes at finalization. #1355
  • Mark PyLayout::py_init, PyClassDict::clear_dict, and opt_to_pyobj safe, as they do not perform any unsafe operations. #1404

Fixed

  • Fix support for using r#raw_idents as argument names in pyfunctions. #1383
  • Fix typo in FFI definition for PyFunction_GetCode (was incorrectly PyFunction_Code). #1387
  • Fix FFI definitions PyMarshal_WriteObjectToString and PyMarshal_ReadObjectFromString as available in limited API. #1387
  • Fix FFI definitions PyListObject and those from funcobject.h as requiring non-limited API. #1387
  • Fix unqualified Result usage in pyobject_native_type_base. #1402
  • Fix build on systems where the default Python encoding is not UTF-8. #1405
  • Fix build on mingw / MSYS2. #1423

0.13.1 - 2021-01-10

Added

  • Add support for #[pyclass(dict)] and #[pyclass(weakref)] with the abi3 feature on Python 3.9 and up. #1342
  • Add FFI definitions PyOS_BeforeFork, PyOS_AfterFork_Parent, PyOS_AfterFork_Child for Python 3.7 and up. #1348
  • Add an auto-initialize feature to control whether PyO3 should automatically initialize an embedded Python interpreter. For compatibility this feature is enabled by default in PyO3 0.13.1, but is planned to become opt-in from PyO3 0.14.0. #1347
  • Add support for cross-compiling to Windows without needing PYO3_CROSS_INCLUDE_DIR. #1350

Deprecated

  • Deprecate FFI definitions PyEval_CallObjectWithKeywords, PyEval_CallObject, PyEval_CallFunction, PyEval_CallMethod when building for Python 3.9. #1338
  • Deprecate FFI definitions PyGetSetDef_DICT and PyGetSetDef_INIT which have never been in the Python API. #1341
  • Deprecate FFI definitions PyGen_NeedsFinalizing, PyImport_Cleanup (removed in 3.9), and PyOS_InitInterrupts (3.10). #1348
  • Deprecate FFI definition PyOS_AfterFork for Python 3.7 and up. #1348
  • Deprecate FFI definitions PyCoro_Check, PyAsyncGen_Check, and PyCoroWrapper_Check, which have never been in the Python API (for the first two, it is possible to use PyCoro_CheckExact and PyAsyncGen_CheckExact instead; these are the actual functions provided by the Python API). #1348
  • Deprecate FFI definitions for PyUnicode_FromUnicode, PyUnicode_AsUnicode and PyUnicode_AsUnicodeAndSize, which will be removed from 3.12 and up due to PEP 613. #1370

Removed

  • Remove FFI definition PyFrame_ClearFreeList when building for Python 3.9. #1341
  • Remove FFI definition _PyDict_Contains when building for Python 3.10. #1341
  • Remove FFI definitions PyGen_NeedsFinalizing and PyImport_Cleanup (for 3.9 and up), and PyOS_InitInterrupts (3.10). #1348

Fixed

  • Stop including Py_TRACE_REFS config setting automatically if Py_DEBUG is set on Python 3.8 and up. #1334
  • Remove #[deny(warnings)] attribute (and instead refuse warnings only in CI). #1340
  • Fix deprecation warning for missing __module__ with #[pyclass]. #1343
  • Correct return type of PyFrozenSet::empty to &PyFrozenSet (was incorrectly &PySet). #1351
  • Fix missing Py_INCREF on heap type objects on Python versions before 3.8. #1365

0.13.0 - 2020-12-22

Packaging

  • Drop support for Python 3.5 (as it is now end-of-life). #1250
  • Bump minimum supported Rust version to 1.45. #1272
  • Bump indoc dependency to 1.0. #1272
  • Bump paste dependency to 1.0. #1272
  • Rename internal crates pyo3cls and pyo3-derive-backend to pyo3-macros and pyo3-macros-backend respectively. #1317

Added

  • Add support for building for CPython limited API. Opting-in to the limited API enables a single extension wheel built with PyO3 to be installable on multiple Python versions. This required a few minor changes to runtime behaviour of of PyO3 #[pyclass] types. See the migration guide for full details. #1152
    • Add feature flags abi3-py36, abi3-py37, abi3-py38 etc. to set the minimum Python version when using the limited API. #1263
  • Add argument names to TypeError messages generated by pymethod wrappers. #1212
  • Add FFI definitions for PEP 587 "Python Initialization Configuration". #1247
  • Add FFI definitions for PyEval_SetProfile and PyEval_SetTrace. #1255
  • Add FFI definitions for context.h functions (PyContext_New, etc). #1259
  • Add PyAny::is_instance method. #1276
  • Add support for conversion between char and PyString. #1282
  • Add FFI definitions for PyBuffer_SizeFromFormat, PyObject_LengthHint, PyObject_CallNoArgs, PyObject_CallOneArg, PyObject_CallMethodNoArgs, PyObject_CallMethodOneArg, PyObject_VectorcallDict, and PyObject_VectorcallMethod. #1287
  • Add conversions between u128/i128 and PyLong for PyPy. #1310
  • Add Python::version and Python::version_info to get the running interpreter version. #1322
  • Add conversions for tuples of length 10, 11, and 12. #1454

Changed

  • Change return type of PyType::name from Cow<str> to PyResult<&str>. #1152
  • #[pyclass(subclass)] is now required for subclassing from Rust (was previously just required for subclassing from Python). #1152
  • Change PyIterator to be consistent with other native types: it is now used as &PyIterator instead of PyIterator<'a>. #1176
  • Change formatting of PyDowncastError messages to be closer to Python's builtin error messages. #1212
  • Change Debug and Display impls for PyException to be consistent with PyAny. #1275
  • Change Debug impl of PyErr to output more helpful information (acquiring the GIL if necessary). #1275
  • Rename PyTypeInfo::is_instance and PyTypeInfo::is_exact_instance to PyTypeInfo::is_type_of and PyTypeInfo::is_exact_type_of. #1278
  • Optimize PyAny::call0, Py::call0 and PyAny::call_method0 and Py::call_method0 on Python 3.9 and up. #1287
  • Require double-quotes for pyclass name argument e.g #[pyclass(name = "MyClass")]. #1303

Deprecated

  • Deprecate Python::is_instance, Python::is_subclass, Python::release, and Python::xdecref. #1292

Removed

  • Remove deprecated ffi definitions PyUnicode_AsUnicodeCopy, PyUnicode_GetMax, _Py_CheckRecursionLimit, PyObject_AsCharBuffer, PyObject_AsReadBuffer, PyObject_CheckReadBuffer and PyObject_AsWriteBuffer, which will be removed in Python 3.10. #1217
  • Remove unused python3 feature. #1235

Fixed

  • Fix missing field in PyCodeObject struct (co_posonlyargcount) - caused invalid access to other fields in Python >3.7. #1260
  • Fix building for x86_64-unknown-linux-musl target from x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu host. #1267
  • Fix #[text_signature] interacting badly with rust r#raw_identifiers. #1286
  • Fix FFI definitions for PyObject_Vectorcall and PyVectorcall_Call. #1287
  • Fix building with Anaconda python inside a virtualenv. #1290
  • Fix definition of opaque FFI types. #1312
  • Fix using custom error type in pyclass #[new] methods. #1319

0.12.4 - 2020-11-28

Fixed

  • Fix reference count bug in implementation of From<Py<T>> for PyObject, a regression introduced in PyO3 0.12. #1297

0.12.3 - 2020-10-12

Fixed

  • Fix support for Rust versions 1.39 to 1.44, broken by an incorrect internal update to paste 1.0 which was done in PyO3 0.12.2. #1234

0.12.2 - 2020-10-12

Added

  • Add support for keyword-only arguments without default values in #[pyfunction]. #1209
  • Add Python::check_signals as a safe a wrapper for PyErr_CheckSignals. #1214

Fixed

  • Fix invalid document for protocol methods. #1169
  • Hide docs of PyO3 private implementation details in pyo3::class::methods. #1169
  • Fix unnecessary rebuild on PATH changes when the python interpreter is provided by PYO3_PYTHON. #1231

0.12.1 - 2020-09-16

Fixed

  • Fix building for a 32-bit Python on 64-bit Windows with a 64-bit Rust toolchain. #1179
  • Fix building on platforms where c_char is u8. #1182

0.12.0 - 2020-09-12

Added

  • Add FFI definitions Py_FinalizeEx, PyOS_getsig, and PyOS_setsig. #1021
  • Add PyString::to_str for accessing PyString as &str. #1023
  • Add Python::with_gil for executing a closure with the Python GIL. #1037
  • Add type information to failures in PyAny::downcast. #1050
  • Implement Debug for PyIterator. #1051
  • Add PyBytes::new_with and PyByteArray::new_with for initialising bytes and bytearray objects using a closure. #1074
  • Add #[derive(FromPyObject)] macro for enums and structs. #1065
  • Add Py::as_ref and Py::into_ref for converting Py<T> to &T. #1098
  • Add ability to return Result types other than PyResult from #[pyfunction], #[pymethod] and #[pyproto] functions. #1106.
  • Implement ToPyObject, IntoPy, and FromPyObject for hashbrown's HashMap and HashSet types (requires the hashbrown feature). #1114
  • Add #[pyfunction(pass_module)] and #[pyfn(pass_module)] to pass the module object as the first function argument. #1143
  • Add PyModule::add_function and PyModule::add_submodule as typed alternatives to PyModule::add_wrapped. #1143
  • Add native PyCFunction and PyFunction types. #1163

Changed

  • Rework exception types: #1024 #1115
    • Rename exception types from e.g. RuntimeError to PyRuntimeError. The old names continue to exist but are deprecated.
    • Exception objects are now accessible as &T or Py<T>, just like other Python-native types.
    • Rename PyException::py_err to PyException::new_err.
    • Rename PyUnicodeDecodeErr::new_err to PyUnicodeDecodeErr::new.
    • Remove PyStopIteration::stop_iteration.
  • Require T: Send for the return value T of Python::allow_threads. #1036
  • Rename PYTHON_SYS_EXECUTABLE to PYO3_PYTHON. The old name will continue to work (undocumented) but will be removed in a future release. #1039
  • Remove unsafe from signature of PyType::as_type_ptr. #1047
  • Change return type of PyIterator::from_object to PyResult<PyIterator> (was Result<PyIterator, PyDowncastError>). #1051
  • IntoPy is no longer implied by FromPy. #1063
  • Change PyObject to be a type alias for Py<PyAny>. #1063
  • Rework PyErr to be compatible with the std::error::Error trait: #1067 #1115
    • Implement Display, Error, Send and Sync for PyErr and PyErrArguments.
    • Add PyErr::instance for accessing PyErr as &PyBaseException.
    • PyErr's fields are now an implementation detail. The equivalent values can be accessed with PyErr::ptype, PyErr::pvalue and PyErr::ptraceback.
    • Change receiver of PyErr::print and PyErr::print_and_set_sys_last_vars to &self (was self).
    • Remove PyErrValue, PyErr::from_value, PyErr::into_normalized, and PyErr::normalize.
    • Remove PyException::into.
    • Remove Into<PyResult<T>> for PyErr and PyException.
  • Change methods generated by #[pyproto] to return NotImplemented if Python should try a reversed operation. #1072
  • Change argument to PyModule::add to impl IntoPy<PyObject> (was impl ToPyObject). #1124

Removed

  • Remove many exception and PyErr APIs; see the "changed" section above. #1024 #1067 #1115
  • Remove PyString::to_string (use new PyString::to_str). #1023
  • Remove PyString::as_bytes. #1023
  • Remove Python::register_any. #1023
  • Remove GILGuard::acquire from the public API. Use Python::acquire_gil or Python::with_gil. #1036
  • Remove the FromPy trait. #1063
  • Remove the AsPyRef trait. #1098

Fixed

  • Correct FFI definitions Py_SetProgramName and Py_SetPythonHome to take *const arguments (was *mut). #1021
  • Fix FromPyObject for num_bigint::BigInt for Python objects with an __index__ method. #1027
  • Correct FFI definition _PyLong_AsByteArray to take *mut c_uchar argument (was *const c_uchar). #1029
  • Fix segfault with #[pyclass(dict, unsendable)]. #1058 #1059
  • Fix using &Self as an argument type for functions in a #[pymethods] block. #1071
  • Fix best-effort build against PyPy 3.6. #1092
  • Fix many cases of lifetime elision in #[pyproto] implementations. #1093
  • Fix detection of Python build configuration when cross-compiling. #1095
  • Always link against libpython on android with the extension-module feature. #1095
  • Fix the + operator not trying __radd__ when both __add__ and __radd__ are defined in PyNumberProtocol (and similar for all other reversible operators). #1107
  • Fix building with Anaconda python. #1175

0.11.1 - 2020-06-30

Added

  • #[pyclass(unsendable)]. #1009

Changed

  • Update parking_lot dependency to 0.11. #1010

0.11.0 - 2020-06-28

Added

  • Support stable versions of Rust (>=1.39). #969
  • Add FFI definition PyObject_AsFileDescriptor. #938
  • Add PyByteArray::data, PyByteArray::as_bytes, and PyByteArray::as_bytes_mut. #967
  • Add GILOnceCell to use in situations where lazy_static or once_cell can deadlock. #975
  • Add Py::borrow, Py::borrow_mut, Py::try_borrow, and Py::try_borrow_mut for accessing #[pyclass] values. #976
  • Add IterNextOutput and IterANextOutput for returning from __next__ / __anext__. #997

Changed

  • Simplify internals of #[pyo3(get)] attribute. (Remove the hidden API GetPropertyValue.) #934
  • Call Py_Finalize at exit to flush buffers, etc. #943
  • Add type parameter to PyBuffer. #951
  • Require Send bound for #[pyclass]. #966
  • Add Python argument to most methods on PyObject and Py<T> to ensure GIL safety. #970
  • Change signature of PyTypeObject::type_object - now takes Python argument and returns &PyType. #970
  • Change return type of PyTuple::slice and PyTuple::split_from from Py<PyTuple> to &PyTuple. #970
  • Change return type of PyTuple::as_slice to &[&PyAny]. #971
  • Rename PyTypeInfo::type_object to type_object_raw, and add Python argument. #975
  • Update num-complex optional dependendency from 0.2 to 0.3. #977
  • Update num-bigint optional dependendency from 0.2 to 0.3. #978
  • #[pyproto] is re-implemented without specialization. #961
  • PyClassAlloc::alloc is renamed to PyClassAlloc::new. #990
  • #[pyproto] methods can now have return value T or PyResult<T> (previously only PyResult<T> was supported). #996
  • #[pyproto] methods can now skip annotating the return type if it is (). #998

Removed

  • Remove ManagedPyRef (unused, and needs specialization) #930

Fixed

  • Fix passing explicit None to Option<T> argument #[pyfunction] with a default value. #936
  • Fix PyClass.__new__'s not respecting subclasses when inherited by a Python class. #990
  • Fix returning Option<T> from #[pyproto] methods. #996
  • Fix accepting PyRef<Self> and PyRefMut<Self> to #[getter] and #[setter] methods. #999

0.10.1 - 2020-05-14

Fixed

  • Fix deadlock in Python::acquire_gil after dropping a PyObject or Py<T>. #924

0.10.0 - 2020-05-13

Added

  • Add FFI definition _PyDict_NewPresized. #849
  • Implement IntoPy<PyObject> for HashSet and BTreeSet. #864
  • Add PyAny::dir method. #886
  • Gate macros behind a macros feature (enabled by default). #897
  • Add ability to define class attributes using #[classattr] on functions in #[pymethods]. #905
  • Implement Clone for PyObject and Py<T>. #908
  • Implement Deref<Target = PyAny> for all builtin types. (PyList, PyTuple, PyDict etc.) #911
  • Implement Deref<Target = PyAny> for PyCell<T>. #911
  • Add #[classattr] support for associated constants in #[pymethods]. #914

Changed

  • Panics will now be raised as a Python PanicException. #797
  • Change PyObject and Py<T> reference counts to decrement immediately upon drop when the GIL is held. #851
  • Allow PyIterProtocol methods to use either PyRef or PyRefMut as the receiver type. #856
  • Change the implementation of FromPyObject for Py<T> to apply to a wider range of T, including all T: PyClass. #880
  • Move all methods from the ObjectProtocol trait to the PyAny struct. #911
  • Remove need for #![feature(specialization)] in crates depending on PyO3. #917

Removed

  • Remove PyMethodsProtocol trait. #889
  • Remove num-traits dependency. #895
  • Remove ObjectProtocol trait. #911
  • Remove PyAny::None. Users should use Python::None instead. #911
  • Remove all *ProtocolImpl traits. #917

Fixed

  • Fix support for __radd__ and other __r*__ methods as implementations for Python mathematical operators. #839
  • Fix panics during garbage collection when traversing objects that were already mutably borrowed. #855
  • Prevent &'static references to Python objects as arguments to #[pyfunction] and #[pymethods]. #869
  • Fix lifetime safety bug with AsPyRef::as_ref. #876
  • Fix #[pyo3(get)] attribute on Py<T> fields. #880
  • Fix segmentation faults caused by functions such as PyList::get_item returning borrowed objects when it was not safe to do so. #890
  • Fix segmentation faults caused by nested Python::acquire_gil calls creating dangling references. #893
  • Fix segmentatation faults when a panic occurs during a call to Python::allow_threads. #912

0.9.2 - 2020-04-09

Added

  • FromPyObject implementations for HashSet and BTreeSet. #842

Fixed

  • Correctly detect 32bit architecture. #830

0.9.1 - 2020-03-23

Fixed

  • Error messages for #[pyclass]. #826
  • FromPyObject implementation for PySequence. #827

0.9.0 - 2020-03-19

Added

  • PyCell, which has RefCell-like features. #770
  • PyClass, PyLayout, PyClassInitializer. #683
  • Implemented IntoIterator for PySet and PyFrozenSet. #716
  • FromPyObject is now automatically implemented for T: Clone pyclasses. #730
  • #[pyo3(get)] and #[pyo3(set)] will now use the Rust doc-comment from the field for the Python property. #755
  • #[setter] functions may now take an argument of Pyo3::Python. #760
  • PyTypeInfo::BaseLayout and PyClass::BaseNativeType. #770
  • PyDowncastImpl. #770
  • Implement FromPyObject and IntoPy<PyObject> traits for arrays (up to 32). #778
  • migration.md and types.md in the guide. #795, #802
  • ffi::{_PyBytes_Resize, _PyDict_Next, _PyDict_Contains, _PyDict_GetDictPtr}. #820

Changed

  • #[new] does not take PyRawObject and can return Self. #683
  • The blanket implementations for FromPyObject for &T and &mut T are no longer specializable. Implement PyTryFrom for your type to control the behavior of FromPyObject::extract for your types. #713
  • The implementation for IntoPy<U> for T where U: FromPy<T> is no longer specializable. Control the behavior of this via the implementation of FromPy. #713
  • Use parking_lot::Mutex instead of spin::Mutex. #734
  • Bumped minimum Rust version to 1.42.0-nightly 2020-01-21. #761
  • PyRef and PyRefMut are renewed for PyCell. #770
  • Some new FFI functions for Python 3.8. #784
  • PyAny is now on the top level module and prelude. #816

Removed

  • PyRawObject. #683
  • PyNoArgsFunction. #741
  • initialize_type. To set the module name for a #[pyclass], use the module argument to the macro. #751
  • AsPyRef::as_mut/with/with_mut/into_py/into_mut_py. #770
  • PyTryFrom::try_from_mut/try_from_mut_exact/try_from_mut_unchecked. #770
  • Python::mut_from_owned_ptr/mut_from_borrowed_ptr. #770
  • ObjectProtocol::get_base/get_mut_base. #770

Fixed

  • Fixed unsoundness of subclassing. #683.
  • Clear error indicator when the exception is handled on the Rust side. #719
  • Usage of raw identifiers with #[pyo3(set)]. #745
  • Usage of PyObject with #[pyo3(get)]. #760
  • #[pymethods] used in conjunction with #[cfg]. #769
  • "*" in a #[pyfunction()] argument list incorrectly accepting any number of positional arguments (use args = "*" when this behaviour is desired). #792
  • PyModule::dict. #809
  • Fix the case where DESCRIPTION is not null-terminated. #822

[0.8.5] - 2020-01-05

Added

  • Implemented FromPyObject for HashMap and BTreeMap
  • Support for #[name = "foo"] attribute for #[pyfunction] and in #[pymethods]. #692

0.8.4 - 2019-12-14

Added

  • Support for #[text_signature] attribute. #675

0.8.3 - 2019-11-23

Removed

  • #[init] is removed. #658

Fixed

  • Now all &Py~ types have !Send bound. #655
  • Fix a compile error raised by the stabilization of ! type. #672.

0.8.2 - 2019-10-27

Added

  • FFI compatibility for PEP 590 Vectorcall. #641

Fixed

  • Fix PySequenceProtocol::set_item. #624
  • Fix a corner case of BigInt::FromPyObject. #630
  • Fix index errors in parameter conversion. #631
  • Fix handling of invalid utf-8 sequences in PyString::as_bytes. #639 and PyString::to_string_lossy #642.
  • Remove __contains__ and __iter__ from PyMappingProtocol. #644
  • Fix proc-macro definition of PySetAttrProtocol. #645

0.8.1 - 2019-10-08

Added

Fixed

  • Make sure the right Python interpreter is used in OSX builds. #604
  • Patch specialization being broken by Rust 1.40. #614
  • Fix a segfault around PyErr. #597

0.8.0 - 2019-09-16

Added

  • module argument to pyclass macro. #499
  • py_run! macro #512
  • Use existing fields and methods before calling custom getattr. #505
  • PyBytes can now be indexed just like Vec<u8>
  • Implement IntoPy<PyObject> for PyRef and PyRefMut.

Changed

  • Implementing the Using the gc parameter for pyclass (e.g. #[pyclass(gc)]) without implementing the class::PyGCProtocol trait is now a compile-time error. Failing to implement this trait could lead to segfaults. #532
  • PyByteArray::data has been replaced with PyDataArray::to_vec because returning a &[u8] is unsound. (See this comment for a great write-up for why that was unsound)
  • Replace mashup with paste.
  • GILPool gained a Python marker to prevent it from being misused to release Python objects without the GIL held.

Removed

  • IntoPyObject was replaced with IntoPy<PyObject>
  • #[pyclass(subclass)] is hidden a unsound-subclass feature because it's causing segmentation faults.

Fixed

  • More readable error message for generics in pyclass #503

0.7.0 - 2019-05-26

Added

  • PyPy support by omerbenamram in #393
  • Have PyModule generate an index of its members (__all__ list).
  • Allow slf: PyRef<T> for pyclass(#419)
  • Allow to use lifetime specifiers in pymethods
  • Add marshal module. #460

Changed

  • Python::run returns PyResult<()> instead of PyResult<&PyAny>.
  • Methods decorated with #[getter] and #[setter] can now omit wrapping the result type in PyResult if they don't raise exceptions.

Fixed

  • type_object::PyTypeObject has been marked unsafe because breaking the contract type_object::PyTypeObject::init_type can lead to UB.
  • Fixed automatic derive of PySequenceProtocol implementation in #423.
  • Capitalization & better wording to README.md.
  • Docstrings of properties is now properly set using the doc of the #[getter] method.
  • Fixed issues with pymethods crashing on doc comments containing double quotes.
  • PySet::new and PyFrozenSet::new now return PyResult<&Py[Frozen]Set>; exceptions are raised if the items are not hashable.
  • Fixed building using venv on Windows.
  • PyTuple::new now returns &PyTuple instead of Py<PyTuple>.
  • Fixed several issues with argument parsing; notable, the *args and **kwargs tuple/dict now doesn't contain arguments that are otherwise assigned to parameters.

0.6.0 - 2019-03-28

Regressions

  • Currently, #341 causes cargo test to fail with weird linking errors when the extension-module feature is activated. For now you can work around this by making the extension-module feature optional and running the tests with cargo test --no-default-features:
[dependencies.pyo3]
version = "0.6.0"

[features]
extension-module = ["pyo3/extension-module"]
default = ["extension-module"]

Added

  • Added a wrap_pymodule! macro similar to the existing wrap_pyfunction! macro. Only available on python 3
  • Added support for cross compiling (e.g. to arm v7) by mtp401 in #327. See the "Cross Compiling" section in the "Building and Distribution" chapter of the guide for more details.
  • The PyRef and PyRefMut types, which allow to differentiate between an instance of a rust struct on the rust heap and an instance that is embedded inside a python object. By kngwyu in #335
  • Added FromPy<T> and IntoPy<T> which are equivalent to From<T> and Into<T> except that they require a gil token.
  • Added ManagedPyRef, which should eventually replace ToBorrowedObject.

Changed

  • Renamed PyObjectRef to PyAny in #388
  • Renamed add_function to add_wrapped as it now also supports modules.
  • Renamed #[pymodinit] to #[pymodule]
  • py.init(|| value) becomes Py::new(value)
  • py.init_ref(|| value) becomes PyRef::new(value)
  • py.init_mut(|| value) becomes PyRefMut::new(value).
  • PyRawObject::init is now infallible, e.g. it returns () instead of PyResult<()>.
  • Renamed py_exception! to create_exception! and refactored the error macros.
  • Renamed wrap_function! to wrap_pyfunction!
  • Renamed #[prop(get, set)] to #[pyo3(get, set)]
  • #[pyfunction] now supports the same arguments as #[pyfn()]
  • Some macros now emit proper spanned errors instead of panics.
  • Migrated to the 2018 edition
  • crate::types::exceptions moved to crate::exceptions
  • Replace IntoPyTuple with IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>.
  • IntoPyPointer and ToPyPointer moved into the crate root.
  • class::CompareOp moved into class::basic::CompareOp
  • PyTypeObject is now a direct subtrait PyTypeCreate, removing the old cyclical implementation in #350
  • Add PyList::{sort, reverse} by chr1sj0nes in #357 and #358
  • Renamed the typeob module to type_object

Removed

  • PyToken was removed due to unsoundness (See #94).
  • Removed the unnecessary type parameter from PyObjectAlloc
  • NoArgs. Just use an empty tuple
  • PyObjectWithGIL. PyNativeType is sufficient now that PyToken is removed.

Fixed

  • A soudness hole where every instances of a #[pyclass] struct was considered to be part of a python object, even though you can create instances that are not part of the python heap. This was fixed through PyRef and PyRefMut.
  • Fix kwargs support in #328.
  • Add full support for __dict__ in #403.

0.5.3 - 2019-01-04

Fixed

  • Fix memory leak in ArrayList by kngwyu #316

0.5.2 - 2018-11-25

Fixed

  • Fix undeterministic segfaults when creating many objects by kngwyu in #281

[0.5.1] - 2018-11-24

Yanked

0.5.0 - 2018-11-11

Added

  • #[pyclass] objects can now be returned from rust functions
  • PyComplex by kngwyu in #226
  • PyDict::from_sequence, equivalent to dict([(key, val), ...])
  • Bindings for the datetime standard library types: PyDate, PyTime, PyDateTime, PyTzInfo, PyDelta with associated ffi types, by pganssle #200.
  • PyString, PyUnicode, and PyBytes now have an as_bytes method that returns &[u8].
  • PyObjectProtocol::get_type_ptr by ijl in #242

Changed

  • Removes the types from the root module and the prelude. They now live in pyo3::types instead.
  • All exceptions are constructed with py_err instead of new, as they return PyErr and not Self.
  • as_mut and friends take and &mut self instead of &self
  • ObjectProtocol::call now takes an Option<&PyDict> for the kwargs instead of an IntoPyDictPointer.
  • IntoPyDictPointer was replace by IntoPyDict which doesn't convert PyDict itself anymore and returns a PyDict instead of *mut PyObject.
  • PyTuple::new now takes an IntoIterator instead of a slice
  • Updated to syn 0.15
  • Splitted PyTypeObject into PyTypeObject without the create method and PyTypeCreate with requires PyObjectAlloc<Self> + PyTypeInfo + Sized.
  • Ran cargo edition --fix which prefixed path with crate:: for rust 2018
  • Renamed async to pyasync as async will be a keyword in the 2018 edition.
  • Starting to use NonNull<*mut PyObject> for Py and PyObject by ijl #260

Removed

  • Removed most entries from the prelude. The new prelude is small and clear.
  • Slowly removing specialization uses
  • PyString, PyUnicode, and PyBytes no longer have a data method (replaced by as_bytes) and PyStringData has been removed.
  • The pyobject_extract macro

Fixed

  • Added an explanation that the GIL can temporarily be released even while holding a GILGuard.
  • Lots of clippy errors
  • Fix segfault on calling an unknown method on a PyObject
  • Work around a bug in the rust compiler by kngwyu #252
  • Fixed a segfault with subclassing pyo3 create classes and using __class__ by kngwyu #263

0.4.1 - 2018-08-20

Changed

  • PyTryFrom's error is always to PyDowncastError

Fixed

  • Fixed compilation on nightly since use_extern_macros was stabilized

Removed

  • The pyobject_downcast macro

0.4.0 - 2018-07-30

Changed

  • Merged both examples into one
  • Rustfmt all the things :heavy_check_mark:
  • Switched to Keep a Changelog

Removed

0.3.2 - 2018-07-22

Changed

  • Replaced concat_idents with mashup

0.3.1 - 2018-07-18

Fixed

  • Fixed scoping bug in pyobject_native_type that would break rust-numpy

0.3.0 - 2018-07-18

Added

  • A few internal macros became part of the public api (#155, #186)
  • Always clone in getters. This allows using the get-annotation on all Clone-Types

Changed

  • Upgraded to syn 0.14 which means much better error messages :tada:
  • 128 bit integer support by kngwyu (#137)
  • proc_macro has been stabilized on nightly (rust-lang/rust#52081). This means that we can remove the proc_macro feature, but now we need the use_extern_macros from the 2018 edition instead.
  • All proc macro are now prefixed with py and live in the prelude. This means you can use #[pyclass], #[pymethods], #[pyproto], #[pyfunction] and #[pymodinit] directly, at least after a use pyo3::prelude::*. They were also moved into a module called proc_macro. You shouldn't use #[pyo3::proc_macro::pyclass] or other longer paths in attributes because proc_macro_path_invoc isn't going to be stabilized soon.
  • Renamed the base option in the pyclass macro to extends.
  • #[pymodinit] uses the function name as module name, unless the name is overrriden with #[pymodinit(name)]
  • The guide is now properly versioned.

0.2.7 - 2018-05-18

Fixed

  • Fix nightly breakage with proc_macro_path

0.2.6 - 2018-04-03

Fixed

  • Fix compatibility with TryFrom trait #137

0.2.5 - 2018-02-21

Added

  • CPython 3.7 support

Fixed

  • Embedded CPython 3.7b1 crashes on initialization #110
  • Generated extension functions are weakly typed #108
  • call_method* crashes when the method does not exist #113
  • Allow importing exceptions from nested modules #116

0.2.4 - 2018-01-19

Added

  • Allow to get mutable ref from PyObject #106
  • Drop RefFromPyObject trait
  • Add Python::register_any method

Fixed

  • Fix impl FromPyObject for Py<T>
  • Mark method that work with raw pointers as unsafe #95

0.2.3 - 11-27-2017

Changed

  • Rustup to 1.23.0-nightly 2017-11-07

Fixed

  • Proper c_char usage #93

Removed

  • Remove use of now unneeded 'AsciiExt' trait

0.2.2 - 09-26-2017

Changed

  • Rustup to 1.22.0-nightly 2017-09-30

0.2.1 - 09-26-2017

Fixed

  • Fix rustc const_fn nightly breakage

0.2.0 - 08-12-2017

Added

  • Added inheritance support #15
  • Added weakref support #56
  • Added subclass support #64
  • Added self.__dict__ supoort #68
  • Added pyo3::prelude module #70
  • Better Iterator support for PyTuple, PyList, PyDict #75
  • Introduce IntoPyDictPointer similar to IntoPyTuple #69

Changed

  • Allow to add gc support without implementing PyGCProtocol #57
  • Refactor PyErr implementation. Drop py parameter from constructor.

0.1.0 - 07-23-2017

Added

  • Initial release

Contributing

Thank you for your interest in contributing to PyO3! All are welcome - please consider reading our Code of Conduct to keep our community positive and inclusive.

If you are searching for ideas how to contribute, proceed to the "Getting started contributing" section. If you have found a specific issue to contribute to and need information about the development process, you may find the section "Writing pull requests" helpful.

If you want to become familiar with the codebase, see Architecture.md.

Getting started contributing

Please join in with any part of PyO3 which interests you. We use GitHub issues to record all bugs and ideas. Feel free to request an issue to be assigned to you if you want to work on it.

You can browse the API of the non-public parts of PyO3 here.

The following sections also contain specific ideas on where to start contributing to PyO3.

Setting up a development environment

To work and develop PyO3, you need Python & Rust installed on your system.

  • We encourage the use of rustup to be able to select and choose specific toolchains based on the project.
  • Pyenv is also highly recommended for being able to choose a specific Python version.
  • virtualenv can also be used with or without Pyenv to use specific installed Python versions.
  • nox is used to automate many of our CI tasks.

Caveats

  • When using pyenv on macOS, installing a Python version using --enable-shared is required to make it work. i.e env PYTHON_CONFIGURE_OPTS="--enable-shared" pyenv install 3.7.12

Help users identify bugs

The PyO3 Gitter channel is very active with users who are new to PyO3, and often completely new to Rust. Helping them debug is a great way to get experience with the PyO3 codebase.

Helping others often reveals bugs, documentation weaknesses, and missing APIs. It's a good idea to open GitHub issues for these immediately so the resolution can be designed and implemented!

Implement issues ready for development

Issues where the solution is clear and work is not in progress use the needs-implementer label.

Don't be afraid if the solution is not clear to you! The core PyO3 contributors will be happy to mentor you through any questions you have to help you write the solution.

Help write great docs

PyO3 has a user guide (using mdbook) as well as the usual Rust API docs. The aim is for both of these to be detailed, easy to understand, and up-to-date. Pull requests are always welcome to fix typos, change wording, add examples, etc.

There are some specific areas of focus where help is currently needed for the documentation:

  • Issues requesting documentation improvements are tracked with the documentation label.
  • Not all APIs had docs or examples when they were made. The goal is to have documentation on all PyO3 APIs (#306). If you see an API lacking a doc, please write one and open a PR!

You can build the docs (including all features) with

cargo xtask doc --open

Doctests

We use lots of code blocks in our docs. Run cargo test --doc when making changes to check that the doctests still work, or cargo test to run all the tests including doctests. See https://doc.rust-lang.org/rustdoc/documentation-tests.html for a guide on doctests.

Building the guide

You can preview the user guide by building it locally with mdbook.

First, install mdbook and nox. Then, run

nox -s build-guide -- --open

Help design the next PyO3

Issues which don't yet have a clear solution use the needs-design label.

If any of these issues interest you, please join in with the conversation on the issue! All opinions are valued, and if you're interested in going further with e.g. draft PRs to experiment with API designs, even better!

Review pull requests

Everybody is welcome to submit comments on open PRs. Please help ensure new PyO3 APIs are safe, performant, tidy, and easy to use!

Writing pull requests

Here are a few things to note when you are writing PRs.

Continuous Integration

The PyO3 repo uses GitHub Actions. PRs are blocked from merging if CI is not successful.

Formatting, linting and tests are checked for all Rust and Python code. In addition, all warnings in Rust code are disallowed (using RUSTFLAGS="-D warnings").

Tests run with all supported Python versions with the latest stable Rust compiler, as well as for Python 3.9 with the minimum supported Rust version.

If you are adding a new feature, you should add it to the full feature in our Cargo.toml* so that it is tested in CI.

You can run these tests yourself with cargo xtask ci See it's documentationfor more commands you can run.

Python and Rust version support policy

PyO3 aims to keep sufficient compatibility to make packaging Python extensions built with PyO3 feasible on most common package managers.

To keep package maintainers' lives simpler, PyO3 will commit, wherever possible, to only adjust minimum supported Rust and Python versions at the same time. This bump will only come in an 0.x release, roughly once per year, after the oldest supported Python version reaches its end-of-life. (Check https://endoflife.date/python for a clear timetable on these.)

Below are guidelines on what compatibility all PRs are expected to deliver for each language.

Python

PyO3 supports all officially supported Python versions, as well as the latest PyPy3 release. All of these versions are tested in CI.

Rust

PyO3 aims to make use of up-to-date Rust language features to keep the implementation as efficient as possible.

The minimum Rust version supported will be decided when the release which bumps Python and Rust versions is made. At the time, the minimum Rust version will be set no higher than the lowest Rust version shipped in the current Debian, RHEL and Alpine Linux distributions.

CI tests both the most recent stable Rust version and the minimum supported Rust version. Because of Rust's stability guarantees this is sufficient to confirm support for all Rust versions in between.

Benchmarking

PyO3 has two sets of benchmarks for evaluating some aspects of its performance. The benchmark suite is currently very small - please open PRs with new benchmarks if you're interested in helping to expand it!

First, there are Rust-based benchmarks located in the benches subdirectory. As long as you have a nightly rust compiler available on your system, you can run these benchmarks with:

cargo +nightly bench

Second, there is a Python-based benchmark contained in the pytests subdirectory. You can read more about it here.

Code coverage

You can view what code is and isn't covered by PyO3's tests. We aim to have 100% coverage - please check coverage and add tests if you notice a lack of coverage!

  • First, generate a lcov.info file with
cargo xtask coverage

You can install an IDE plugin to view the coverage. For example, if you use VSCode:

  • Add the coverage-gutters plugin.
  • Add these settings to VSCode's settings.json:
{    
    "coverage-gutters.coverageFileNames": [
        "lcov.info",
        "cov.xml",
        "coverage.xml",
    ],
    "coverage-gutters.showLineCoverage": true
}
  • You should now be able to see green highlights for code that is tested, and red highlights for code that is not tested.

At the moment there is no official organisation that accepts sponsorship on PyO3's behalf. If you're seeking to provide significant funding to the PyO3 ecosystem, please reach out to us on GitHub or Gitter and we can discuss.

In the meanwhile, some of our maintainers have personal GitHub sponsorship pages and would be grateful for your support: