[][src]Struct pyo3::pycell::PyCell

#[repr(C)]pub struct PyCell<T: PyClass> { /* fields omitted */ }

PyCell is the container type for PyClass.

From Python side, PyCell<T> is the concrete layout of T: PyClass in the Python heap, which means we can convert *const PyClass<T> to *mut ffi::PyObject.

From Rust side, PyCell<T> is the mutable container of T. Since PyCell<T: PyClass> is always on the Python heap, we don't have the ownership of it. Thus, to mutate the data behind &PyCell<T> safely, we employ the Interior Mutability Pattern like std::cell::RefCell.

PyCell implements Deref<Target = PyAny>, so you can also call methods from PyAny when you have a PyCell<T>.

Examples

In most cases, PyCell is hidden behind #[pymethods]. However, you can construct &PyCell directly to test your pyclass in Rust code.

#[pyclass]
struct Book {
    #[pyo3(get)]
    name: &'static str,
    author: &'static str,
}
let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
let py = gil.python();
let book = Book {
    name: "The Man in the High Castle",
    author: "Philip Kindred Dick",
};
let book_cell = PyCell::new(py, book).unwrap();
// you can expose PyCell to Python snippets
pyo3::py_run!(py, book_cell, "assert book_cell.name[-6:] == 'Castle'");

You can use slf: &PyCell<Self> as an alternative self receiver of #[pymethod], though you rarely need it.

use std::collections::HashMap;
#[pyclass]
#[derive(Default)]
struct Counter {
    counter: HashMap<String, usize>
}
#[pymethods]
impl Counter {
    // You can use &mut self here, but now we use &PyCell for demonstration
    fn increment(slf: &PyCell<Self>, name: String) -> PyResult<usize> {
        let mut slf_mut = slf.try_borrow_mut()?;
        // Now a mutable reference exists so we cannot get another one
        assert!(slf.try_borrow().is_err());
        assert!(slf.try_borrow_mut().is_err());
        let counter = slf_mut.counter.entry(name).or_insert(0);
        *counter += 1;
        Ok(*counter)
    }
}

Methods

impl<T: PyClass> PyCell<T>[src]

pub fn new(
    py: Python,
    value: impl Into<PyClassInitializer<T>>
) -> PyResult<&Self> where
    T::BaseLayout: PyBorrowFlagLayout<T::BaseType>, 
[src]

Make a new PyCell on the Python heap and return the reference to it.

In cases where the value in the cell does not need to be accessed immediately after creation, consider Py::new as a more efficient alternative.

pub fn borrow(&self) -> PyRef<T>[src]

Immutably borrows the value T. This borrow lasts untill the returned PyRef exists.

Panics

Panics if the value is currently mutably borrowed. For a non-panicking variant, use try_borrow.

pub fn borrow_mut(&self) -> PyRefMut<T>[src]

Mutably borrows the value T. This borrow lasts untill the returned PyRefMut exists.

Panics

Panics if the value is currently mutably borrowed. For a non-panicking variant, use try_borrow_mut.

pub fn try_borrow(&self) -> Result<PyRef<T>, PyBorrowError>[src]

Immutably borrows the value T, returning an error if the value is currently mutably borrowed. This borrow lasts untill the returned PyRef exists.

This is the non-panicking variant of borrow.

Examples

#[pyclass]
struct Class {}
let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
let py = gil.python();
let c = PyCell::new(py, Class {}).unwrap();
{
    let m = c.borrow_mut();
    assert!(c.try_borrow().is_err());
}

{
    let m = c.borrow();
    assert!(c.try_borrow().is_ok());
}

pub fn try_borrow_mut(&self) -> Result<PyRefMut<T>, PyBorrowMutError>[src]

Mutably borrows the value T, returning an error if the value is currently borrowed. This borrow lasts untill the returned PyRefMut exists.

This is the non-panicking variant of borrow_mut.

Examples

#[pyclass]
struct Class {}
let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
let py = gil.python();
let c = PyCell::new(py, Class {}).unwrap();
{
    let m = c.borrow();
    assert!(c.try_borrow_mut().is_err());
}

assert!(c.try_borrow_mut().is_ok());

pub unsafe fn try_borrow_unguarded(&self) -> Result<&T, PyBorrowError>[src]

Immutably borrows the value T, returning an error if the value is currently mutably borrowed.

Safety

This method is unsafe because it does not return a PyRef, thus leaving the borrow flag untouched. Mutably borrowing the PyCell while the reference returned by this method is alive is undefined behaviour.

Examples

#[pyclass]
struct Class {}
let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
let py = gil.python();
let c = PyCell::new(py, Class {}).unwrap();

{
    let m = c.borrow_mut();
    assert!(unsafe { c.try_borrow_unguarded() }.is_err());
}

{
    let m = c.borrow();
    assert!(unsafe { c.try_borrow_unguarded() }.is_ok());
}

pub fn replace(&self, t: T) -> T[src]

Replaces the wrapped value with a new one, returning the old value,

Panics

Panics if the value is currently borrowed.

pub fn replace_with<F: FnOnce(&mut T) -> T>(&self, f: F) -> T[src]

Replaces the wrapped value with a new one computed from f, returning the old value.

Panics

Panics if the value is currently borrowed.

pub fn swap(&self, other: &Self)[src]

Swaps the wrapped value of self with the wrapped value of other.

Panics

Panics if the value in either PyCell is currently borrowed.

Methods from Deref<Target = PyAny>

pub fn downcast<T>(&self) -> Result<&T, PyDowncastError> where
    T: PyTryFrom<'py>, 
[src]

Convert this PyAny to a concrete Python type.

pub fn hasattr<N>(&self, attr_name: N) -> PyResult<bool> where
    N: ToPyObject
[src]

Determines whether this object has the given attribute.

This is equivalent to the Python expression hasattr(self, attr_name).

pub fn getattr<N>(&self, attr_name: N) -> PyResult<&PyAny> where
    N: ToPyObject
[src]

Retrieves an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name.

pub fn setattr<N, V>(&self, attr_name: N, value: V) -> PyResult<()> where
    N: ToBorrowedObject,
    V: ToBorrowedObject
[src]

Sets an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name = value.

pub fn delattr<N>(&self, attr_name: N) -> PyResult<()> where
    N: ToPyObject
[src]

Deletes an attribute.

This is equivalent to the Python expression del self.attr_name.

pub fn compare<O>(&self, other: O) -> PyResult<Ordering> where
    O: ToPyObject
[src]

Compares two Python objects.

This is equivalent to:

if self == other:
    return Equal
elif a < b:
    return Less
elif a > b:
    return Greater
else:
    raise TypeError("PyAny::compare(): All comparisons returned false")

pub fn rich_compare<O>(
    &self,
    other: O,
    compare_op: CompareOp
) -> PyResult<&PyAny> where
    O: ToPyObject
[src]

Compares two Python objects.

Depending on the value of compare_op, this is equivalent to one of the following Python expressions:

  • CompareOp::Eq: self == other
  • CompareOp::Ne: self != other
  • CompareOp::Lt: self < other
  • CompareOp::Le: self <= other
  • CompareOp::Gt: self > other
  • CompareOp::Ge: self >= other

pub fn is_callable(&self) -> bool[src]

Determines whether this object is callable.

pub fn call(
    &self,
    args: impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>,
    kwargs: Option<&PyDict>
) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
[src]

Calls the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args, **kwargs).

pub fn call0(&self) -> PyResult<&PyAny>[src]

Calls the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self().

pub fn call1(&self, args: impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>) -> PyResult<&PyAny>[src]

Calls the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args).

pub fn call_method(
    &self,
    name: &str,
    args: impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>,
    kwargs: Option<&PyDict>
) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
[src]

Calls a method on the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args, **kwargs).

Example

use pyo3::types::IntoPyDict;

let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
let py = gil.python();
let list = vec![3, 6, 5, 4, 7].to_object(py);
let dict = vec![("reverse", true)].into_py_dict(py);
list.call_method(py, "sort", (), Some(dict)).unwrap();
assert_eq!(list.extract::<Vec<i32>>(py).unwrap(), vec![7, 6, 5, 4, 3]);

let new_element = 1.to_object(py);
list.call_method(py, "append", (new_element,), None).unwrap();
assert_eq!(list.extract::<Vec<i32>>(py).unwrap(), vec![7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 1]);

pub fn call_method0(&self, name: &str) -> PyResult<&PyAny>[src]

Calls a method on the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name().

pub fn call_method1(
    &self,
    name: &str,
    args: impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>
) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
[src]

Calls a method on the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args).

pub fn is_true(&self) -> PyResult<bool>[src]

Returns whether the object is considered to be true.

This is equivalent to the Python expression bool(self).

pub fn is_none(&self) -> bool[src]

Returns whether the object is considered to be None.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is None.

pub fn is_empty(&self) -> PyResult<bool>[src]

Returns true if the sequence or mapping has a length of 0.

This is equivalent to the Python expression len(self) == 0.

pub fn get_item<K>(&self, key: K) -> PyResult<&PyAny> where
    K: ToBorrowedObject
[src]

Gets an item from the collection.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self[key].

pub fn set_item<K, V>(&self, key: K, value: V) -> PyResult<()> where
    K: ToBorrowedObject,
    V: ToBorrowedObject
[src]

Sets a collection item value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self[key] = value.

pub fn del_item<K>(&self, key: K) -> PyResult<()> where
    K: ToBorrowedObject
[src]

Deletes an item from the collection.

This is equivalent to the Python expression del self[key].

pub fn iter(&self) -> PyResult<PyIterator>[src]

Takes an object and returns an iterator for it.

This is typically a new iterator but if the argument is an iterator, this returns itself.

pub fn get_type(&self) -> &PyType[src]

Returns the Python type object for this object's type.

pub fn get_type_ptr(&self) -> *mut PyTypeObject[src]

Returns the Python type pointer for this object.

pub fn cast_as<'a, D>(&'a self) -> Result<&'a D, PyDowncastError> where
    D: PyTryFrom<'a>, 
[src]

Casts the PyObject to a concrete Python object type.

This can cast only to native Python types, not types implemented in Rust.

pub fn extract<'a, D>(&'a self) -> PyResult<D> where
    D: FromPyObject<'a>, 
[src]

Extracts some type from the Python object.

This is a wrapper function around FromPyObject::extract().

pub fn get_refcnt(&self) -> isize[src]

Returns the reference count for the Python object.

pub fn repr(&self) -> PyResult<&PyString>[src]

Computes the "repr" representation of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression repr(self).

pub fn str(&self) -> PyResult<&PyString>[src]

Computes the "str" representation of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression str(self).

pub fn hash(&self) -> PyResult<isize>[src]

Retrieves the hash code of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression hash(obi).

pub fn len(&self) -> PyResult<usize>[src]

Returns the length of the sequence or mapping.

This is equivalent to the Python expression len(self).

pub fn dir(&self) -> &PyList[src]

Returns the list of attributes of this object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression dir(self).

Trait Implementations

impl<T: PyClass> AsPyPointer for PyCell<T>[src]

impl<T: PyClass> AsRef<PyAny> for PyCell<T>[src]

impl<T: PyClass + Debug> Debug for PyCell<T>[src]

impl<T: PyClass> Deref for PyCell<T>[src]

type Target = PyAny

The resulting type after dereferencing.

impl<'a, '_, T> From<&'_ PyCell<T>> for Py<T> where
    T: PyClass
[src]

impl<'a, T> FromPyObject<'a> for &'a PyCell<T> where
    T: PyClass
[src]

impl<T: PyClass> PyLayout<T> for PyCell<T>[src]

impl<T: PyClass> PyNativeType for PyCell<T>[src]

impl<'v, T> PyTryFrom<'v> for PyCell<T> where
    T: 'v + PyClass
[src]

impl<'_, T: PyClass> ToPyObject for &'_ PyCell<T>[src]

impl<'a, T: PyClass> TryFrom<&'a PyCell<T>> for PyRef<'a, T>[src]

type Error = PyBorrowError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

impl<'a, T: PyClass> TryFrom<&'a PyCell<T>> for PyRefMut<'a, T>[src]

type Error = PyBorrowMutError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Auto Trait Implementations

impl<T> !RefUnwindSafe for PyCell<T>

impl<T> Send for PyCell<T> where
    T: Send,
    <T as PyTypeInfo>::BaseLayout: Send,
    <T as PyClass>::Dict: Send,
    <T as PyClassSend>::ThreadChecker: Send,
    <T as PyClass>::WeakRef: Send

impl<T> !Sync for PyCell<T>

impl<T> Unpin for PyCell<T> where
    T: Unpin,
    <T as PyTypeInfo>::BaseLayout: Unpin,
    <T as PyClass>::Dict: Unpin,
    <T as PyClassSend>::ThreadChecker: Unpin,
    <T as PyClass>::WeakRef: Unpin

impl<T> UnwindSafe for PyCell<T> where
    T: UnwindSafe,
    <T as PyTypeInfo>::BaseLayout: UnwindSafe,
    <T as PyClass>::Dict: UnwindSafe,
    <T as PyClassSend>::ThreadChecker: UnwindSafe,
    <T as PyClass>::WeakRef: UnwindSafe

Blanket Implementations

impl<T> Any for T where
    T: 'static + ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> Borrow<T> for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> From<T> for T[src]

impl<T> FromPy<T> for T[src]

impl<'p, T> FromPyPointer<'p> for T where
    T: 'p + PyNativeType
[src]

impl<T, U> Into<U> for T where
    U: From<T>, 
[src]

impl<T, U> IntoPy<U> for T where
    U: FromPy<T>, 
[src]

impl<'v, T> PyTryFrom<'v> for T where
    T: PyTypeInfo + PyNativeType
[src]

impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T where
    U: Into<T>, 
[src]

type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T where
    U: TryFrom<T>, 
[src]

type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.