[][src]Struct pyo3::Python

pub struct Python<'p>(_);

Marker type that indicates that the GIL is currently held.

The Python struct is a zero-sized marker struct that is required for most Python operations. This is used to indicate that the operation accesses/modifies the Python interpreter state, and thus can only be called if the Python interpreter is initialized and the Python global interpreter lock (GIL) is acquired. The lifetime 'p represents the lifetime of holding the lock.

Note that the GIL can be temporarily released by the Python interpreter during a function call (e.g. importing a module), even when you're holding a GILGuard. In general, you don't need to worry about this because the GIL is reacquired before returning to the Rust code:

`Python` exists   |=====================================|
GIL actually held |==========|         |================|
Rust code running |=======|                |==|  |======|

This behaviour can cause deadlocks when trying to lock a Rust mutex while holding the GIL:

To avoid deadlocking, you should release the GIL before trying to lock a mutex, e.g. with [Python::allow_threads].

Implementations

impl<'_> Python<'_>[src]

pub fn with_gil<F, R>(f: F) -> R where
    F: for<'p> FnOnce(Python<'p>) -> R, 
[src]

Acquires the global interpreter lock, which allows access to the Python runtime. The provided closure F will be executed with the acquired Python marker token.

If the Python runtime is not already initialized, this function will initialize it. See prepare_freethreaded_python() for details.

Example

use pyo3::prelude::*;
Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let x: i32 = py.eval("5", None, None)?.extract()?;
    assert_eq!(x, 5);
    Ok(())
});

impl<'p> Python<'p>[src]

pub unsafe fn assume_gil_acquired() -> Python<'p>[src]

Retrieves a Python instance under the assumption that the GIL is already acquired at this point, and stays acquired for the lifetime 'p.

Because the output lifetime 'p is not connected to any input parameter, care must be taken that the compiler infers an appropriate lifetime for 'p when calling this function.

Safety

The lifetime 'p must be shorter than the period you assume that you have GIL. I.e., Python<'static> is always really unsafe.

pub fn acquire_gil() -> GILGuard[src]

Acquires the global interpreter lock, which allows access to the Python runtime.

If the Python runtime is not already initialized, this function will initialize it. See prepare_freethreaded_python() for details.

Most users should not need to use this API directly, and should prefer one of two options:

  1. When implementing #[pymethods] or #[pyfunction] add a function argument py: Python to receive access to the GIL context in which the function is running.
  2. Use Python::with_gil to run a closure with the GIL, acquiring only if needed.

Note: This return type from this function, GILGuard, is implemented as a RAII guard around the C-API Python_EnsureGIL. This means that multiple acquire_gil() calls are allowed, and will not deadlock. However, GILGuards must be dropped in the reverse order to acquisition. If PyO3 detects this order is not maintained, it may be forced to begin an irrecoverable panic.

pub fn allow_threads<T, F>(self, f: F) -> T where
    F: Send + FnOnce() -> T,
    T: Send
[src]

Temporarily releases the GIL, thus allowing other Python threads to run.

Example

use pyo3::exceptions::PyRuntimeError;
use std::sync::Arc;
use std::thread;
#[pyfunction]
fn parallel_count(py: Python<'_>, strings: Vec<String>, query: String) -> PyResult<usize> {
    let query = query.chars().next().unwrap();
    py.allow_threads(move || {
        let threads: Vec<_> = strings
            .into_iter()
            .map(|s| thread::spawn(move || s.chars().filter(|&c| c == query).count()))
            .collect();
        let mut sum = 0;
        for t in threads {
            sum += t.join().map_err(|_| PyRuntimeError::new_err(()))?;
        }
        Ok(sum)
    })
}
let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
let py = gil.python();
let m = PyModule::new(py, "pcount").unwrap();
m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(parallel_count, m).unwrap()).unwrap();
let locals = [("pcount", m)].into_py_dict(py);
py.run(r#"
   s = ["Flow", "my", "tears", "the", "Policeman", "Said"]
   assert pcount.parallel_count(s, "a") == 3
"#, None, Some(locals));

Note: PyO3 types that represent objects with a lifetime tied to holding the GIL cannot be used in the closure. This includes &PyAny and all the concrete-typed siblings, like &PyString.

This is achieved via the Send bound on the closure and the return type. This is slightly more restrictive than necessary, but it's the most fitting solution available in stable Rust. In the future this bound may be relaxed by a new "auto-trait", if auto-traits become a stable feature of the Rust language.

You can convert such references to e.g. PyObject or Py<PyString>, which makes them independent of the GIL lifetime. However, you cannot do much with those without a Python<'p> token, for which you'd need to reacquire the GIL.

Example

This example deliberately fails to compile
fn parallel_print(py: Python<'_>) {
    let s = PyString::new(py, "This object should not be shared >_<");
    py.allow_threads(move || {
        println!("{:?}", s); // This causes a compile error.
    });
}

pub fn eval(
    self,
    code: &str,
    globals: Option<&PyDict>,
    locals: Option<&PyDict>
) -> PyResult<&'p PyAny>
[src]

Evaluates a Python expression in the given context and returns the result.

If globals is None, it defaults to Python module __main__. If locals is None, it defaults to the value of globals.

Example:

let result = py.eval("[i * 10 for i in range(5)]", None, None).unwrap();
let res: Vec<i64> = result.extract().unwrap();
assert_eq!(res, vec![0, 10, 20, 30, 40])

pub fn run(
    self,
    code: &str,
    globals: Option<&PyDict>,
    locals: Option<&PyDict>
) -> PyResult<()>
[src]

Executes one or more Python statements in the given context.

If globals is None, it defaults to Python module __main__. If locals is None, it defaults to the value of globals.

Example:

use pyo3::{types::{PyBytes, PyDict}, prelude::*};
let gil = pyo3::Python::acquire_gil();
let py = gil.python();
let locals = PyDict::new(py);
py.run(
    r#"
import base64
s = 'Hello Rust!'
ret = base64.b64encode(s.encode('utf-8'))
"#,
   None,
   Some(locals),
).unwrap();
let ret = locals.get_item("ret").unwrap();
let b64: &PyBytes = ret.downcast().unwrap();
assert_eq!(b64.as_bytes(), b"SGVsbG8gUnVzdCE=");

pub fn get_type<T>(self) -> &'p PyType where
    T: PyTypeObject
[src]

Gets the Python type object for type T.

pub fn import(self, name: &str) -> PyResult<&'p PyModule>[src]

Imports the Python module with the specified name.

pub fn is_instance<T: PyTypeObject, V: AsPyPointer>(
    self,
    obj: &V
) -> PyResult<bool>
[src]

Checks whether obj is an instance of type T.

This is equivalent to the Python isinstance function.

pub fn is_subclass<T, U>(self) -> PyResult<bool> where
    T: PyTypeObject,
    U: PyTypeObject
[src]

Checks whether type T is subclass of type U.

This is equivalent to the Python issubclass function.

pub fn None(self) -> PyObject[src]

Gets the Python builtin value None.

pub fn NotImplemented(self) -> PyObject[src]

Gets the Python builtin value NotImplemented.

pub unsafe fn new_pool(self) -> GILPool[src]

Create a new pool for managing PyO3's owned references.

When this GILPool is dropped, all PyO3 owned references created after this GILPool will all have their Python reference counts decremented, potentially allowing Python to drop the corresponding Python objects.

Typical usage of PyO3 will not need this API, as Python::acquire_gil automatically creates a GILPool where appropriate.

Advanced uses of PyO3 which perform long-running tasks which never free the GIL may need to use this API to clear memory, as PyO3 usually does not clear memory until the GIL is released.

Example

let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
let py = gil.python();

// Some long-running process like a webserver, which never releases the GIL.
loop {
    // Create a new pool, so that PyO3 can clear memory at the end of the loop.
    let pool = unsafe { py.new_pool() };

    // It is recommended to *always* immediately set py to the pool's Python, to help
    // avoid creating references with invalid lifetimes.
    let py = unsafe { pool.python() };

    // do stuff...
}

Safety

Extreme care must be taken when using this API, as misuse can lead to accessing invalid memory. In addition, the caller is responsible for guaranteeing that the GIL remains held for the entire lifetime of the returned GILPool.

Two best practices are required when using this API:

  • From the moment new_pool() is called, only the Python token from the returned GILPool (accessible using .python()) should be used in PyO3 APIs. All other older Python tokens with longer lifetimes are unsafe to use until the GILPool is dropped, because they can be used to create PyO3 owned references which have lifetimes which outlive the GILPool.
  • Similarly, methods on existing owned references will implicitly refer back to the Python token which that reference was originally created with. If the returned values from these methods are owned references they will inherit the same lifetime. As a result, Rust's lifetime rules may allow them to outlive the GILPool, even though this is not safe for reasons discussed above. Care must be taken to never access these return values after the GILPool is dropped, unless they are converted to Py<T> before the pool is dropped.

impl<'p> Python<'p>[src]

pub fn checked_cast_as<T>(
    self,
    obj: PyObject
) -> Result<&'p T, PyDowncastError<'p>> where
    T: PyTryFrom<'p>, 
[src]

Registers the object in the release pool, and tries to downcast to specific type.

pub unsafe fn cast_as<T>(self, obj: PyObject) -> &'p T where
    T: PyNativeType + PyTypeInfo
[src]

Registers the object in the release pool, and does an unchecked downcast to the specific type.

pub unsafe fn from_owned_ptr<T>(self, ptr: *mut PyObject) -> &'p T where
    T: FromPyPointer<'p>, 
[src]

Registers the object pointer in the release pool, and does an unchecked downcast to the specific type.

pub unsafe fn from_owned_ptr_or_err<T>(
    self,
    ptr: *mut PyObject
) -> PyResult<&'p T> where
    T: FromPyPointer<'p>, 
[src]

Registers the owned object pointer in the release pool.

Returns Err(PyErr) if the pointer is NULL. Does an unchecked downcast to the specific type.

pub unsafe fn from_owned_ptr_or_opt<T>(
    self,
    ptr: *mut PyObject
) -> Option<&'p T> where
    T: FromPyPointer<'p>, 
[src]

Registers the owned object pointer in release pool.

Returns None if the pointer is NULL. Does an unchecked downcast to the specific type.

pub unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr<T>(self, ptr: *mut PyObject) -> &'p T where
    T: FromPyPointer<'p>, 
[src]

Does an unchecked downcast to the specific type.

Panics if the pointer is NULL.

pub unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr_or_err<T>(
    self,
    ptr: *mut PyObject
) -> PyResult<&'p T> where
    T: FromPyPointer<'p>, 
[src]

Does an unchecked downcast to the specific type.

Returns Err(PyErr) if the pointer is NULL.

pub unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr_or_opt<T>(
    self,
    ptr: *mut PyObject
) -> Option<&'p T> where
    T: FromPyPointer<'p>, 
[src]

Does an unchecked downcast to the specific type.

Returns None if the pointer is NULL.

pub fn release<T>(self, ob: T) where
    T: IntoPyPointer
[src]

Releases a PyObject reference.

pub fn xdecref<T: IntoPyPointer>(self, ptr: T)[src]

Releases a ffi::PyObject pointer.

pub fn check_signals(self) -> PyResult<()>[src]

Lets the Python interpreter check for pending signals and invoke the corresponding signal handlers. This can run arbitrary Python code.

If an exception is raised by the signal handler, or the default signal handler raises an exception (such as KeyboardInterrupt for SIGINT), an Err is returned.

This is a wrapper of the C function PyErr_CheckSignals(). It is good practice to call this regularly in a long-running calculation since SIGINT and other signals handled by Python code are left pending for its entire duration.

Trait Implementations

impl<'p> Clone for Python<'p>[src]

impl<'p> Copy for Python<'p>[src]

Auto Trait Implementations

impl<'p> !RefUnwindSafe for Python<'p>

impl<'p> !Send for Python<'p>

impl<'p> !Sync for Python<'p>

impl<'p> Unpin for Python<'p>

impl<'p> !UnwindSafe for Python<'p>

Blanket Implementations

impl<T> Any for T where
    T: 'static + ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> Borrow<T> for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> From<T> for T[src]

impl<T, U> Into<U> for T where
    U: From<T>, 
[src]

impl<T> ToOwned for T where
    T: Clone
[src]

type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T where
    U: Into<T>, 
[src]

type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T where
    U: TryFrom<T>, 
[src]

type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.