Struct pyo3::types::PyAny[][src]

#[repr(transparent)]
pub struct PyAny(_);
Expand description

Represents any Python object.

It currently only appears as a reference, &PyAny, with a lifetime that represents the scope during which the GIL is held.

PyAny has some interesting properties, which it shares with the other native Python types:

  • It can only be obtained and used while the GIL is held, therefore its API does not require a Python<'py> token.
  • It can’t be used in situations where the GIL is temporarily released, such as Python::allow_threads’s closure.
  • The underlying Python object, if mutable, can be mutated through any reference.
  • It can be converted to the GIL-independent Py<PyAny>, allowing it to outlive the GIL scope. However, using Py<PyAny>’s API does require a Python<'py> token.

It can be cast to a concrete type with PyAny::downcast (for native Python types only) and FromPyObject::extract. See their documentation for more information.

See the guide for an explanation of the different Python object types.

Implementations

Converts this PyAny to a concrete Python type.

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyAny, PyDict, PyList};

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let dict = PyDict::new(py);
    assert!(dict.is_instance_of::<PyAny>().unwrap());
    let any: &PyAny = dict.as_ref();
    assert!(any.downcast::<PyDict>().is_ok());
    assert!(any.downcast::<PyList>().is_err());
});

Determines whether this object has the given attribute.

This is equivalent to the Python expression hasattr(self, attr_name).

Retrieves an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name.

Sets an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name = value.

Deletes an attribute.

This is equivalent to the Python statement del self.attr_name.

Returns an Ordering between self and other.

This is equivalent to the following Python code:

if self == other:
    return Equal
elif a < b:
    return Less
elif a > b:
    return Greater
else:
    raise TypeError("PyAny::compare(): All comparisons returned false")
Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyFloat;
use std::cmp::Ordering;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a = PyFloat::new(py, 0_f64);
    let b = PyFloat::new(py, 42_f64);
    assert_eq!(a.compare(b)?, Ordering::Less);
    Ok(())
})?;

It will return PyErr for values that cannot be compared:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyFloat, PyString};

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a = PyFloat::new(py, 0_f64);
    let b = PyString::new(py, "zero");
    assert!(a.compare(b).is_err());
    Ok(())
})?;

Tests whether two Python objects obey a given CompareOp.

Depending on the value of compare_op, this is equivalent to one of the following Python expressions:

compare_opPython expression
CompareOp::Eqself == other
CompareOp::Neself != other
CompareOp::Ltself < other
CompareOp::Leself <= other
CompareOp::Gtself > other
CompareOp::Geself >= other
Examples
use pyo3::class::basic::CompareOp;
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyInt;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a: &PyInt = 0_u8.into_py(py).into_ref(py).downcast()?;
    let b: &PyInt = 42_u8.into_py(py).into_ref(py).downcast()?;
    assert!(a.rich_compare(b, CompareOp::Le)?.is_true()?);
    Ok(())
})?;

Determines whether this object appears callable.

This is equivalent to Python’s callable() function.

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let builtins = PyModule::import(py, "builtins")?;
    let print = builtins.getattr("print")?;
    assert!(print.is_callable());
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the Python statement assert callable(print).

Note that unless an API needs to distinguish between callable and non-callable objects, there is no point in checking for callability. Instead, it is better to just do the call and handle potential exceptions.

Calls the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args, **kwargs).

Calls the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self().

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let module = PyModule::import(py, "builtins")?;
    let help = module.getattr("help")?;
    help.call0()?;
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the Python expression help().

Calls the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args).

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let module = PyModule::import(py, "operator")?;
    let add = module.getattr("add")?;
    let args = (1, 2);
    let value = add.call1(args)?;
    assert_eq!(value.extract::<i32>()?, 3);
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the following Python code:

from operator import add

value = add(1,2)
assert value == 3

Calls a method on the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args, **kwargs).

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{IntoPyDict, PyList};

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let list = PyList::new(py, vec![3, 6, 5, 4, 7]);
    let kwargs = vec![("reverse", true)].into_py_dict(py);

    list.call_method("sort", (), Some(kwargs))?;
    assert_eq!(list.extract::<Vec<i32>>()?, vec![7, 6, 5, 4, 3]);
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the following Python code:

my_list = [3, 6, 5, 4, 7]
my_list.sort(reverse = True)
assert my_list == [7, 6, 5, 4, 3]

Calls a method on the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name().

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyFloat;
use std::f64::consts::PI;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let pi = PyFloat::new(py, PI);
    let ratio = pi.call_method0("as_integer_ratio")?;
    let (a, b) = ratio.extract::<(u64, u64)>()?;
    assert_eq!(a, 884_279_719_003_555);
    assert_eq!(b, 281_474_976_710_656);
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the following Python code:

import math

a, b = math.pi.as_integer_ratio()

Calls a method on the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args).

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyList;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let list = PyList::new(py, vec![1, 3, 4]);
    list.call_method1("insert", (1, 2))?;
    assert_eq!(list.extract::<Vec<u8>>()?, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the following Python code:

list_ = [1,3,4]
list_.insert(1,2)
assert list_ == [1,2,3,4]

Returns whether the object is considered to be true.

This is equivalent to the Python expression bool(self).

Returns whether the object is considered to be None.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is None.

Returns true if the sequence or mapping has a length of 0.

This is equivalent to the Python expression len(self) == 0.

Gets an item from the collection.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self[key].

Sets a collection item value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self[key] = value.

Deletes an item from the collection.

This is equivalent to the Python expression del self[key].

Takes an object and returns an iterator for it.

This is typically a new iterator but if the argument is an iterator, this returns itself.

Returns the Python type object for this object’s type.

Returns the Python type pointer for this object.

Casts the PyObject to a concrete Python object type.

This can cast only to native Python types, not types implemented in Rust.

Extracts some type from the Python object.

This is a wrapper function around FromPyObject::extract().

Returns the reference count for the Python object.

Computes the “repr” representation of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression repr(self).

Computes the “str” representation of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression str(self).

Retrieves the hash code of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression hash(self).

Returns the length of the sequence or mapping.

This is equivalent to the Python expression len(self).

Returns the list of attributes of this object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression dir(self).

Checks whether this object is an instance of type typ.

This is equivalent to the Python expression isinstance(self, typ).

Checks whether this object is an instance of type T.

This is equivalent to the Python expression isinstance(self, T), if the type T is known at compile time.

Returns a GIL marker constrained to the lifetime of this type.

Trait Implementations

Retrieves the underlying FFI pointer (as a borrowed pointer).

Performs the conversion.

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Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Performs the conversion.

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Extracts Self from the source PyObject.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

Returns a GIL marker constrained to the lifetime of this type.

Cast &PyAny to &Self without no type checking. Read more

Cast from PyObject to a concrete Python object type.

Cast from PyObject to a concrete Python object type. With exact type check.

Utility type to make Py::as_ref work.

Class name.

Module name, if any.

PyTypeObject instance for this type.

Checks if object is an instance of this type or a subclass of this type.

Checks if object is an instance of this type.

Converts self into a Python object.

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject. Read more

Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject or panic. Read more

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject or panic. Read more

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject. Read more

Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more

Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more

Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Cast from a concrete Python object type to PyObject.

Cast from a concrete Python object type to PyObject. With exact type check.

Cast a PyAny to a specific type of PyObject. The caller must have already verified the reference is for this type. Read more

Returns the safe abstraction over the type object.

Converts self into a Python object and calls the specified closure on the native FFI pointer underlying the Python object. Read more

Converts the given value to a String. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.