Struct pyo3::types::PyIterator

source ·
#[repr(transparent)]
pub struct PyIterator(_);
Expand description

A Python iterator object.

Examples

use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let list = py.eval("iter([1, 2, 3, 4])", None, None)?;
    let numbers: PyResult<Vec<usize>> = list
        .iter()?
        .map(|i| i.and_then(PyAny::extract::<usize>))
        .collect();
    let sum: usize = numbers?.iter().sum();
    assert_eq!(sum, 10);
    Ok(())
})

Implementations§

Constructs a PyIterator from a Python iterable object.

Equivalent to Python’s built-in iter function.

Methods from Deref<Target = PyAny>§

Returns whether self and other point to the same object. To compare the equality of two objects (the == operator), use eq.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is other.

Determines whether this object has the given attribute.

This is equivalent to the Python expression hasattr(self, attr_name).

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern attr_name.

Retrieves an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name.

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern attr_name.

Example: intern!ing the attribute name
#[pyfunction]
fn version(sys: &PyModule) -> PyResult<&PyAny> {
    sys.getattr(intern!(sys.py(), "version"))
}

Sets an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name = value.

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

Example: intern!ing the attribute name
#[pyfunction]
fn set_answer(ob: &PyAny) -> PyResult<()> {
    ob.setattr(intern!(ob.py(), "answer"), 42)
}

Deletes an attribute.

This is equivalent to the Python statement del self.attr_name.

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern attr_name.

Returns an Ordering between self and other.

This is equivalent to the following Python code:

if self == other:
    return Equal
elif a < b:
    return Less
elif a > b:
    return Greater
else:
    raise TypeError("PyAny::compare(): All comparisons returned false")
Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyFloat;
use std::cmp::Ordering;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a = PyFloat::new(py, 0_f64);
    let b = PyFloat::new(py, 42_f64);
    assert_eq!(a.compare(b)?, Ordering::Less);
    Ok(())
})?;

It will return PyErr for values that cannot be compared:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyFloat, PyString};

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a = PyFloat::new(py, 0_f64);
    let b = PyString::new(py, "zero");
    assert!(a.compare(b).is_err());
    Ok(())
})?;

Tests whether two Python objects obey a given CompareOp.

lt, le, eq, ne, gt and ge are the specialized versions of this function.

Depending on the value of compare_op, this is equivalent to one of the following Python expressions:

compare_opPython expression
CompareOp::Eqself == other
CompareOp::Neself != other
CompareOp::Ltself < other
CompareOp::Leself <= other
CompareOp::Gtself > other
CompareOp::Geself >= other
Examples
use pyo3::class::basic::CompareOp;
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyInt;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a: &PyInt = 0_u8.into_py(py).into_ref(py).downcast()?;
    let b: &PyInt = 42_u8.into_py(py).into_ref(py).downcast()?;
    assert!(a.rich_compare(b, CompareOp::Le)?.is_true()?);
    Ok(())
})?;

Tests whether this object is less than another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self < other.

Tests whether this object is less than or equal to another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self <= other.

Tests whether this object is equal to another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self == other.

Tests whether this object is not equal to another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self != other.

Tests whether this object is greater than another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self > other.

Tests whether this object is greater than or equal to another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self >= other.

Determines whether this object appears callable.

This is equivalent to Python’s callable() function.

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let builtins = PyModule::import(py, "builtins")?;
    let print = builtins.getattr("print")?;
    assert!(print.is_callable());
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the Python statement assert callable(print).

Note that unless an API needs to distinguish between callable and non-callable objects, there is no point in checking for callability. Instead, it is better to just do the call and handle potential exceptions.

Calls the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args, **kwargs).

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

const CODE: &str = r#"
def function(*args, **kwargs):
    assert args == ("hello",)
    assert kwargs == {"cruel": "world"}
    return "called with args and kwargs"
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let fun = module.getattr("function")?;
    let args = ("hello",);
    let kwargs = PyDict::new(py);
    kwargs.set_item("cruel", "world")?;
    let result = fun.call(args, Some(kwargs))?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with args and kwargs");
    Ok(())
})

Calls the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self().

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let module = PyModule::import(py, "builtins")?;
    let help = module.getattr("help")?;
    help.call0()?;
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the Python expression help().

Calls the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args).

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

const CODE: &str = r#"
def function(*args, **kwargs):
    assert args == ("hello",)
    assert kwargs == {}
    return "called with args"
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let fun = module.getattr("function")?;
    let args = ("hello",);
    let result = fun.call1(args)?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with args");
    Ok(())
})

Calls a method on the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args, **kwargs).

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

const CODE: &str = r#"
class A:
    def method(self, *args, **kwargs):
        assert args == ("hello",)
        assert kwargs == {"cruel": "world"}
        return "called with args and kwargs"
a = A()
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let instance = module.getattr("a")?;
    let args = ("hello",);
    let kwargs = PyDict::new(py);
    kwargs.set_item("cruel", "world")?;
    let result = instance.call_method("method", args, Some(kwargs))?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with args and kwargs");
    Ok(())
})

Calls a method on the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name().

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

const CODE: &str = r#"
class A:
    def method(self, *args, **kwargs):
        assert args == ()
        assert kwargs == {}
        return "called with no arguments"
a = A()
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let instance = module.getattr("a")?;
    let result = instance.call_method0("method")?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with no arguments");
    Ok(())
})

Calls a method on the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args).

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

const CODE: &str = r#"
class A:
    def method(self, *args, **kwargs):
        assert args == ("hello",)
        assert kwargs == {}
        return "called with args"
a = A()
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let instance = module.getattr("a")?;
    let args = ("hello",);
    let result = instance.call_method1("method", args)?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with args");
    Ok(())
})

Returns whether the object is considered to be true.

This is equivalent to the Python expression bool(self).

Returns whether the object is considered to be None.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is None.

Returns whether the object is Ellipsis, e.g. ....

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is ....

Returns true if the sequence or mapping has a length of 0.

This is equivalent to the Python expression len(self) == 0.

Gets an item from the collection.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self[key].

Sets a collection item value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self[key] = value.

Deletes an item from the collection.

This is equivalent to the Python expression del self[key].

Takes an object and returns an iterator for it.

This is typically a new iterator but if the argument is an iterator, this returns itself.

Returns the Python type object for this object’s type.

Returns the Python type pointer for this object.

👎Deprecated since 0.18.0: use the equivalent .downcast()

Converts this PyAny to a concrete Python type.

Downcast this PyAny to a concrete Python type or pyclass.

Note that you can often avoid downcasting yourself by just specifying the desired type in function or method signatures. However, manual downcasting is sometimes necessary.

For extracting a Rust-only type, see PyAny::extract.

Example: Downcasting to a specific Python object
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyAny, PyDict, PyList};

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let dict = PyDict::new(py);
    assert!(dict.is_instance_of::<PyAny>().unwrap());
    let any: &PyAny = dict.as_ref();

    assert!(any.downcast::<PyDict>().is_ok());
    assert!(any.downcast::<PyList>().is_err());
});
Example: Getting a reference to a pyclass

This is useful if you want to mutate a PyObject that might actually be a pyclass.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Class {
    i: i32,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let class: &PyAny = Py::new(py, Class { i: 0 }).unwrap().into_ref(py);

    let class_cell: &PyCell<Class> = class.downcast()?;

    class_cell.borrow_mut().i += 1;

    // Alternatively you can get a `PyRefMut` directly
    let class_ref: PyRefMut<'_, Class> = class.extract()?;
    assert_eq!(class_ref.i, 1);
    Ok(())
})

Converts this PyAny to a concrete Python type without checking validity.

Safety

Callers must ensure that the type is valid or risk type confusion.

Extracts some type from the Python object.

This is a wrapper function around FromPyObject::extract().

Returns the reference count for the Python object.

Computes the “repr” representation of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression repr(self).

Computes the “str” representation of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression str(self).

Retrieves the hash code of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression hash(self).

Returns the length of the sequence or mapping.

This is equivalent to the Python expression len(self).

Returns the list of attributes of this object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression dir(self).

Checks whether this object is an instance of type ty.

This is equivalent to the Python expression isinstance(self, ty).

Checks whether this object is an instance of type T.

This is equivalent to the Python expression isinstance(self, T), if the type T is known at compile time.

Determines if self contains value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression value in self.

Returns a GIL marker constrained to the lifetime of this type.

Available on non-PyPy only.

Return a proxy object that delegates method calls to a parent or sibling class of type.

This is equivalent to the Python expression super()

Trait Implementations§

Gets the underlying FFI pointer, returns a borrowed pointer.

Converts this type into a shared reference of the (usually inferred) input type.
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
The resulting type after dereferencing.
Dereferences the value.
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
Converts to this type from the input type.
Converts to this type from the input type.
Extracts Self from the source PyObject.
Available on crate feature experimental-inspect only.
Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as an argument. Read more
Performs the conversion.
Available on crate feature experimental-inspect only.
Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more

Retrieves the next item from an iterator.

Returns None when the iterator is exhausted. If an exception occurs, returns Some(Err(..)). Further next() calls after an exception occurs are likely to repeatedly result in the same exception.

The type of the elements being iterated over.
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_next_chunk)
Advances the iterator and returns an array containing the next N values. Read more
Returns the bounds on the remaining length of the iterator. Read more
Consumes the iterator, counting the number of iterations and returning it. Read more
Consumes the iterator, returning the last element. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_advance_by)
Advances the iterator by n elements. Read more
Returns the nth element of the iterator. Read more
Creates an iterator starting at the same point, but stepping by the given amount at each iteration. Read more
Takes two iterators and creates a new iterator over both in sequence. Read more
‘Zips up’ two iterators into a single iterator of pairs. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_intersperse)
Creates a new iterator which places an item generated by separator between adjacent items of the original iterator. Read more
Takes a closure and creates an iterator which calls that closure on each element. Read more
Calls a closure on each element of an iterator. Read more
Creates an iterator which uses a closure to determine if an element should be yielded. Read more
Creates an iterator that both filters and maps. Read more
Creates an iterator which gives the current iteration count as well as the next value. Read more
Creates an iterator which can use the peek and peek_mut methods to look at the next element of the iterator without consuming it. See their documentation for more information. Read more
Creates an iterator that skips elements based on a predicate. Read more
Creates an iterator that yields elements based on a predicate. Read more
Creates an iterator that both yields elements based on a predicate and maps. Read more
Creates an iterator that skips the first n elements. Read more
Creates an iterator that yields the first n elements, or fewer if the underlying iterator ends sooner. Read more
An iterator adapter similar to fold that holds internal state and produces a new iterator. Read more
Creates an iterator that works like map, but flattens nested structure. Read more
Creates an iterator which ends after the first None. Read more
Does something with each element of an iterator, passing the value on. Read more
Borrows an iterator, rather than consuming it. Read more
Transforms an iterator into a collection. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_collect_into)
Collects all the items from an iterator into a collection. Read more
Consumes an iterator, creating two collections from it. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_is_partitioned)
Checks if the elements of this iterator are partitioned according to the given predicate, such that all those that return true precede all those that return false. Read more
An iterator method that applies a function as long as it returns successfully, producing a single, final value. Read more
An iterator method that applies a fallible function to each item in the iterator, stopping at the first error and returning that error. Read more
Folds every element into an accumulator by applying an operation, returning the final result. Read more
Reduces the elements to a single one, by repeatedly applying a reducing operation. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iterator_try_reduce)
Reduces the elements to a single one by repeatedly applying a reducing operation. If the closure returns a failure, the failure is propagated back to the caller immediately. Read more
Tests if every element of the iterator matches a predicate. Read more
Tests if any element of the iterator matches a predicate. Read more
Searches for an element of an iterator that satisfies a predicate. Read more
Applies function to the elements of iterator and returns the first non-none result. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_find)
Applies function to the elements of iterator and returns the first true result or the first error. Read more
Searches for an element in an iterator, returning its index. Read more
Returns the element that gives the maximum value from the specified function. Read more
Returns the element that gives the maximum value with respect to the specified comparison function. Read more
Returns the element that gives the minimum value from the specified function. Read more
Returns the element that gives the minimum value with respect to the specified comparison function. Read more
Converts an iterator of pairs into a pair of containers. Read more
Creates an iterator which copies all of its elements. Read more
Creates an iterator which clones all of its elements. Read more
Repeats an iterator endlessly. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_array_chunks)
Returns an iterator over N elements of the iterator at a time. Read more
Sums the elements of an iterator. Read more
Iterates over the entire iterator, multiplying all the elements Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_order_by)
Lexicographically compares the elements of this Iterator with those of another with respect to the specified comparison function. Read more
Lexicographically compares the elements of this Iterator with those of another. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_order_by)
Lexicographically compares the elements of this Iterator with those of another with respect to the specified comparison function. Read more
Determines if the elements of this Iterator are equal to those of another. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_order_by)
Determines if the elements of this Iterator are equal to those of another with respect to the specified equality function. Read more
Determines if the elements of this Iterator are unequal to those of another. Read more
Determines if the elements of this Iterator are lexicographically less than those of another. Read more
Determines if the elements of this Iterator are lexicographically less or equal to those of another. Read more
Determines if the elements of this Iterator are lexicographically greater than those of another. Read more
Determines if the elements of this Iterator are lexicographically greater than or equal to those of another. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)
Checks if the elements of this iterator are sorted using the given comparator function. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)
Checks if the elements of this iterator are sorted using the given key extraction function. Read more
Returns a GIL marker constrained to the lifetime of this type.
Cast &PyAny to &Self without no type checking. Read more
Cast from a concrete Python object type to PyObject.
Cast from a concrete Python object type to PyObject. With exact type check.
Cast a PyAny to a specific type of PyObject. The caller must have already verified the reference is for this type. Read more
Converts self into a Python object.

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns the argument unchanged.

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject. Read more
Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more
Convert from an arbitrary PyObject or panic. Read more
Convert from an arbitrary PyObject or panic. Read more
Convert from an arbitrary PyObject. Read more
Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more
Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more
Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

👎Deprecated since 0.17.0: this trait is no longer used by PyO3, use ToPyObject or IntoPy<PyObject>
Converts self into a Python object and calls the specified closure on the native FFI pointer underlying the Python object. Read more
Converts the given value to a String. Read more
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.