Struct pyo3::types::PyModule

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pub struct PyModule(/* private fields */);
Expand description

Represents a Python module object.

As with all other Python objects, modules are first class citizens. This means they can be passed to or returned from functions, created dynamically, assigned to variables and so forth.

Implementations§

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impl PyModule

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pub fn new<'py>(py: Python<'py>, name: &str) -> PyResult<&'py PyModule>

Deprecated form of PyModule::new_bound.

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pub fn new_bound<'py>( py: Python<'py>, name: &str ) -> PyResult<Bound<'py, PyModule>>

Creates a new module object with the __name__ attribute set to name.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let module = PyModule::new_bound(py, "my_module")?;

    assert_eq!(module.name()?.to_cow()?, "my_module");
    Ok(())
})?;
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pub fn import<N>(py: Python<'_>, name: N) -> PyResult<&PyModule>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>,

Deprecated form of PyModule::import_bound.

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pub fn import_bound<N>(py: Python<'_>, name: N) -> PyResult<Bound<'_, PyModule>>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>,

Imports the Python module with the specified name.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::import_bound(py, "antigravity").expect("No flying for you.");
});

This is equivalent to the following Python expression:

import antigravity
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pub fn from_code<'py>( py: Python<'py>, code: &str, file_name: &str, module_name: &str ) -> PyResult<&'py PyModule>

Deprecated form of PyModule::from_code_bound.

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pub fn from_code_bound<'py>( py: Python<'py>, code: &str, file_name: &str, module_name: &str ) -> PyResult<Bound<'py, PyModule>>

Creates and loads a module named module_name, containing the Python code passed to code and pretending to live at file_name.

⚠ ️
 Warning: This will compile and execute code. Never pass untrusted code to this function!

§Errors

Returns PyErr if:

  • code is not syntactically correct Python.
  • Any Python exceptions are raised while initializing the module.
  • Any of the arguments cannot be converted to CStrings.
§Example: bundle in a file at compile time with include_str!:
use pyo3::prelude::*;

// This path is resolved relative to this file.
let code = include_str!("../../assets/script.py");

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    PyModule::from_code_bound(py, code, "example.py", "example")?;
    Ok(())
})?;
§Example: Load a file at runtime with std::fs::read_to_string.
use pyo3::prelude::*;

// This path is resolved by however the platform resolves paths,
// which also makes this less portable. Consider using `include_str`
// if you just want to bundle a script with your module.
let code = std::fs::read_to_string("assets/script.py")?;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    PyModule::from_code_bound(py, &code, "example.py", "example")?;
    Ok(())
})?;
Ok(())
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pub fn dict(&self) -> &PyDict

Returns the module’s __dict__ attribute, which contains the module’s symbol table.

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pub fn index(&self) -> PyResult<&PyList>

Returns the index (the __all__ attribute) of the module, creating one if needed.

__all__ declares the items that will be imported with from my_module import *.

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pub fn name(&self) -> PyResult<&str>

Returns the name (the __name__ attribute) of the module.

May fail if the module does not have a __name__ attribute.

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pub fn filename(&self) -> PyResult<&str>

Returns the filename (the __file__ attribute) of the module.

May fail if the module does not have a __file__ attribute.

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pub fn add<V>(&self, name: &str, value: V) -> PyResult<()>
where V: IntoPy<PyObject>,

Adds an attribute to the module.

For adding classes, functions or modules, prefer to use PyModule::add_class, PyModule::add_function or PyModule::add_submodule instead, respectively.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    module.add("c", 299_792_458)?;
    Ok(())
}

Python code can then do the following:

from my_module import c

print("c is", c)

This will result in the following output:

c is 299792458
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pub fn add_class<T>(&self) -> PyResult<()>
where T: PyClass,

Adds a new class to the module.

Notice that this method does not take an argument. Instead, this method is generic, and requires us to use the “turbofish” syntax to specify the class we want to add.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Foo { /* fields omitted */ }

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    module.add_class::<Foo>()?;
    Ok(())
}

Python code can see this class as such:

from my_module import Foo

print("Foo is", Foo)

This will result in the following output:

Foo is <class 'builtins.Foo'>

Note that as we haven’t defined a constructor, Python code can’t actually make an instance of Foo (or get one for that matter, as we haven’t exported anything that can return instances of Foo).

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pub fn add_wrapped<'a, T>( &'a self, wrapper: &impl Fn(Python<'a>) -> T ) -> PyResult<()>
where T: IntoPyCallbackOutput<PyObject>,

Adds a function or a (sub)module to a module, using the functions name as name.

Prefer to use PyModule::add_function and/or PyModule::add_submodule instead.

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pub fn add_submodule(&self, module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()>

Adds a submodule to a module.

This is especially useful for creating module hierarchies.

Note that this doesn’t define a package, so this won’t allow Python code to directly import submodules by using from my_module import submodule. For more information, see #759 and #1517.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pymodule]
fn my_module(py: Python<'_>, module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    let submodule = PyModule::new_bound(py, "submodule")?;
    submodule.add("super_useful_constant", "important")?;

    module.add_submodule(submodule.as_gil_ref())?;
    Ok(())
}

Python code can then do the following:

import my_module

print("super_useful_constant is", my_module.submodule.super_useful_constant)

This will result in the following output:

super_useful_constant is important
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pub fn add_function<'a>(&'a self, fun: &'a PyCFunction) -> PyResult<()>

Add a function to a module.

Note that this also requires the wrap_pyfunction! macro to wrap a function annotated with #[pyfunction].

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyfunction]
fn say_hello() {
    println!("Hello world!")
}
#[pymodule]
fn my_module(_py: Python<'_>, module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    module.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(say_hello, module)?)
}

Python code can then do the following:

from my_module import say_hello

say_hello()

This will result in the following output:

Hello world!

Methods from Deref<Target = PyAny>§

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pub fn is<T: AsPyPointer>(&self, other: &T) -> bool

Returns whether self and other point to the same object. To compare the equality of two objects (the == operator), use eq.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is other.

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pub fn hasattr<N>(&self, attr_name: N) -> PyResult<bool>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>,

Determines whether this object has the given attribute.

This is equivalent to the Python expression hasattr(self, attr_name).

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern attr_name.

§Example: intern!ing the attribute name
#[pyfunction]
fn has_version(sys: &Bound<'_, PyModule>) -> PyResult<bool> {
    sys.hasattr(intern!(sys.py(), "version"))
}
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pub fn getattr<N>(&self, attr_name: N) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>,

Retrieves an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name.

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern attr_name.

§Example: intern!ing the attribute name
#[pyfunction]
fn version<'py>(sys: &Bound<'py, PyModule>) -> PyResult<Bound<'py, PyAny>> {
    sys.getattr(intern!(sys.py(), "version"))
}
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pub fn setattr<N, V>(&self, attr_name: N, value: V) -> PyResult<()>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>, V: ToPyObject,

Sets an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name = value.

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

§Example: intern!ing the attribute name
#[pyfunction]
fn set_answer(ob: &Bound<'_, PyAny>) -> PyResult<()> {
    ob.setattr(intern!(ob.py(), "answer"), 42)
}
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pub fn delattr<N>(&self, attr_name: N) -> PyResult<()>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>,

Deletes an attribute.

This is equivalent to the Python statement del self.attr_name.

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern attr_name.

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pub fn compare<O>(&self, other: O) -> PyResult<Ordering>
where O: ToPyObject,

Returns an Ordering between self and other.

This is equivalent to the following Python code:

if self == other:
    return Equal
elif a < b:
    return Less
elif a > b:
    return Greater
else:
    raise TypeError("PyAny::compare(): All comparisons returned false")
§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyFloat;
use std::cmp::Ordering;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a = PyFloat::new_bound(py, 0_f64);
    let b = PyFloat::new_bound(py, 42_f64);
    assert_eq!(a.compare(b)?, Ordering::Less);
    Ok(())
})?;

It will return PyErr for values that cannot be compared:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyFloat, PyString};

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a = PyFloat::new_bound(py, 0_f64);
    let b = PyString::new_bound(py, "zero");
    assert!(a.compare(b).is_err());
    Ok(())
})?;
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pub fn rich_compare<O>( &self, other: O, compare_op: CompareOp ) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
where O: ToPyObject,

Tests whether two Python objects obey a given CompareOp.

lt, le, eq, ne, gt and ge are the specialized versions of this function.

Depending on the value of compare_op, this is equivalent to one of the following Python expressions:

compare_opPython expression
CompareOp::Eqself == other
CompareOp::Neself != other
CompareOp::Ltself < other
CompareOp::Leself <= other
CompareOp::Gtself > other
CompareOp::Geself >= other
§Examples
use pyo3::class::basic::CompareOp;
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyInt;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let a: Bound<'_, PyInt> = 0_u8.into_py(py).into_bound(py).downcast_into()?;
    let b: Bound<'_, PyInt> = 42_u8.into_py(py).into_bound(py).downcast_into()?;
    assert!(a.rich_compare(b, CompareOp::Le)?.is_truthy()?);
    Ok(())
})?;
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pub fn lt<O>(&self, other: O) -> PyResult<bool>
where O: ToPyObject,

Tests whether this object is less than another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self < other.

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pub fn le<O>(&self, other: O) -> PyResult<bool>
where O: ToPyObject,

Tests whether this object is less than or equal to another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self <= other.

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pub fn eq<O>(&self, other: O) -> PyResult<bool>
where O: ToPyObject,

Tests whether this object is equal to another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self == other.

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pub fn ne<O>(&self, other: O) -> PyResult<bool>
where O: ToPyObject,

Tests whether this object is not equal to another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self != other.

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pub fn gt<O>(&self, other: O) -> PyResult<bool>
where O: ToPyObject,

Tests whether this object is greater than another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self > other.

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pub fn ge<O>(&self, other: O) -> PyResult<bool>
where O: ToPyObject,

Tests whether this object is greater than or equal to another.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self >= other.

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pub fn is_callable(&self) -> bool

Determines whether this object appears callable.

This is equivalent to Python’s callable() function.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let builtins = PyModule::import_bound(py, "builtins")?;
    let print = builtins.getattr("print")?;
    assert!(print.is_callable());
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the Python statement assert callable(print).

Note that unless an API needs to distinguish between callable and non-callable objects, there is no point in checking for callability. Instead, it is better to just do the call and handle potential exceptions.

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pub fn call( &self, args: impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>, kwargs: Option<&PyDict> ) -> PyResult<&PyAny>

Calls the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args, **kwargs).

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

const CODE: &str = r#"
def function(*args, **kwargs):
    assert args == ("hello",)
    assert kwargs == {"cruel": "world"}
    return "called with args and kwargs"
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code_bound(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let fun = module.getattr("function")?;
    let args = ("hello",);
    let kwargs = PyDict::new_bound(py);
    kwargs.set_item("cruel", "world")?;
    let result = fun.call(args, Some(&kwargs))?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with args and kwargs");
    Ok(())
})
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pub fn call0(&self) -> PyResult<&PyAny>

Calls the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self().

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let module = PyModule::import_bound(py, "builtins")?;
    let help = module.getattr("help")?;
    help.call0()?;
    Ok(())
})?;

This is equivalent to the Python expression help().

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pub fn call1(&self, args: impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>) -> PyResult<&PyAny>

Calls the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args).

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

const CODE: &str = r#"
def function(*args, **kwargs):
    assert args == ("hello",)
    assert kwargs == {}
    return "called with args"
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code_bound(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let fun = module.getattr("function")?;
    let args = ("hello",);
    let result = fun.call1(args)?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with args");
    Ok(())
})
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pub fn call_method<N, A>( &self, name: N, args: A, kwargs: Option<&PyDict> ) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>, A: IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>,

Calls a method on the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args, **kwargs).

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

const CODE: &str = r#"
class A:
    def method(self, *args, **kwargs):
        assert args == ("hello",)
        assert kwargs == {"cruel": "world"}
        return "called with args and kwargs"
a = A()
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code_bound(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let instance = module.getattr("a")?;
    let args = ("hello",);
    let kwargs = PyDict::new_bound(py);
    kwargs.set_item("cruel", "world")?;
    let result = instance.call_method("method", args, Some(&kwargs))?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with args and kwargs");
    Ok(())
})
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pub fn call_method0<N>(&self, name: N) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>,

Calls a method on the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name().

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

const CODE: &str = r#"
class A:
    def method(self, *args, **kwargs):
        assert args == ()
        assert kwargs == {}
        return "called with no arguments"
a = A()
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code_bound(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let instance = module.getattr("a")?;
    let result = instance.call_method0("method")?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with no arguments");
    Ok(())
})
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pub fn call_method1<N, A>(&self, name: N, args: A) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>, A: IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>,

Calls a method on the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args).

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

const CODE: &str = r#"
class A:
    def method(self, *args, **kwargs):
        assert args == ("hello",)
        assert kwargs == {}
        return "called with args"
a = A()
"#;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let module = PyModule::from_code_bound(py, CODE, "", "")?;
    let instance = module.getattr("a")?;
    let args = ("hello",);
    let result = instance.call_method1("method", args)?;
    assert_eq!(result.extract::<&str>()?, "called with args");
    Ok(())
})
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pub fn is_true(&self) -> PyResult<bool>

👎Deprecated since 0.21.0: use .is_truthy() instead

Returns whether the object is considered to be true.

This is equivalent to the Python expression bool(self).

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pub fn is_truthy(&self) -> PyResult<bool>

Returns whether the object is considered to be true.

This applies truth value testing equivalent to the Python expression bool(self).

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pub fn is_none(&self) -> bool

Returns whether the object is considered to be None.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is None.

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pub fn is_ellipsis(&self) -> bool

👎Deprecated since 0.20.0: use .is(py.Ellipsis()) instead

Returns whether the object is Ellipsis, e.g. ....

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is ....

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pub fn is_empty(&self) -> PyResult<bool>

Returns true if the sequence or mapping has a length of 0.

This is equivalent to the Python expression len(self) == 0.

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pub fn get_item<K>(&self, key: K) -> PyResult<&PyAny>
where K: ToPyObject,

Gets an item from the collection.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self[key].

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pub fn set_item<K, V>(&self, key: K, value: V) -> PyResult<()>
where K: ToPyObject, V: ToPyObject,

Sets a collection item value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self[key] = value.

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pub fn del_item<K>(&self, key: K) -> PyResult<()>
where K: ToPyObject,

Deletes an item from the collection.

This is equivalent to the Python expression del self[key].

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pub fn iter(&self) -> PyResult<&PyIterator>

Takes an object and returns an iterator for it.

This is typically a new iterator but if the argument is an iterator, this returns itself.

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pub fn get_type(&self) -> &PyType

Returns the Python type object for this object’s type.

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pub fn get_type_ptr(&self) -> *mut PyTypeObject

Returns the Python type pointer for this object.

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pub fn downcast<T>(&self) -> Result<&T, PyDowncastError<'_>>
where T: PyTypeCheck<AsRefTarget = T>,

Downcast this PyAny to a concrete Python type or pyclass.

Note that you can often avoid downcasting yourself by just specifying the desired type in function or method signatures. However, manual downcasting is sometimes necessary.

For extracting a Rust-only type, see PyAny::extract.

§Example: Downcasting to a specific Python object
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyDict, PyList};

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let dict = PyDict::new_bound(py);
    assert!(dict.is_instance_of::<PyAny>());
    let any = dict.as_any();

    assert!(any.downcast::<PyDict>().is_ok());
    assert!(any.downcast::<PyList>().is_err());
});
§Example: Getting a reference to a pyclass

This is useful if you want to mutate a PyObject that might actually be a pyclass.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Class {
    i: i32,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let class = Py::new(py, Class { i: 0 }).unwrap().into_bound(py).into_any();

    let class_bound: &Bound<'_, Class> = class.downcast()?;

    class_bound.borrow_mut().i += 1;

    // Alternatively you can get a `PyRefMut` directly
    let class_ref: PyRefMut<'_, Class> = class.extract()?;
    assert_eq!(class_ref.i, 1);
    Ok(())
})
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pub fn downcast_exact<T>(&self) -> Result<&T, PyDowncastError<'_>>
where T: PyTypeInfo<AsRefTarget = T>,

Downcast this PyAny to a concrete Python type or pyclass (but not a subclass of it).

It is almost always better to use PyAny::downcast because it accounts for Python subtyping. Use this method only when you do not want to allow subtypes.

The advantage of this method over PyAny::downcast is that it is faster. The implementation of downcast_exact uses the equivalent of the Python expression type(self) is T, whereas downcast uses isinstance(self, T).

For extracting a Rust-only type, see PyAny::extract.

§Example: Downcasting to a specific Python object but not a subtype
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyBool, PyLong};

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let b = PyBool::new_bound(py, true);
    assert!(b.is_instance_of::<PyBool>());
    let any: &Bound<'_, PyAny> = b.as_any();

    // `bool` is a subtype of `int`, so `downcast` will accept a `bool` as an `int`
    // but `downcast_exact` will not.
    assert!(any.downcast::<PyLong>().is_ok());
    assert!(any.downcast_exact::<PyLong>().is_err());

    assert!(any.downcast_exact::<PyBool>().is_ok());
});
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pub unsafe fn downcast_unchecked<T>(&self) -> &T
where T: HasPyGilRef<AsRefTarget = T>,

Converts this PyAny to a concrete Python type without checking validity.

§Safety

Callers must ensure that the type is valid or risk type confusion.

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pub fn extract<'py, D>(&'py self) -> PyResult<D>
where D: FromPyObject<'py>,

Extracts some type from the Python object.

This is a wrapper function around FromPyObject::extract().

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pub fn get_refcnt(&self) -> isize

Returns the reference count for the Python object.

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pub fn repr(&self) -> PyResult<&PyString>

Computes the “repr” representation of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression repr(self).

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pub fn str(&self) -> PyResult<&PyString>

Computes the “str” representation of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression str(self).

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pub fn hash(&self) -> PyResult<isize>

Retrieves the hash code of self.

This is equivalent to the Python expression hash(self).

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pub fn len(&self) -> PyResult<usize>

Returns the length of the sequence or mapping.

This is equivalent to the Python expression len(self).

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pub fn dir(&self) -> &PyList

Returns the list of attributes of this object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression dir(self).

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pub fn is_instance(&self, ty: &PyAny) -> PyResult<bool>

Checks whether this object is an instance of type ty.

This is equivalent to the Python expression isinstance(self, ty).

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pub fn is_exact_instance(&self, ty: &PyAny) -> bool

Checks whether this object is an instance of exactly type ty (not a subclass).

This is equivalent to the Python expression type(self) is ty.

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pub fn is_instance_of<T: PyTypeInfo>(&self) -> bool

Checks whether this object is an instance of type T.

This is equivalent to the Python expression isinstance(self, T), if the type T is known at compile time.

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pub fn is_exact_instance_of<T: PyTypeInfo>(&self) -> bool

Checks whether this object is an instance of exactly type T.

This is equivalent to the Python expression type(self) is T, if the type T is known at compile time.

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pub fn contains<V>(&self, value: V) -> PyResult<bool>
where V: ToPyObject,

Determines if self contains value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression value in self.

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pub fn py(&self) -> Python<'_>

Returns a GIL marker constrained to the lifetime of this type.

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pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *mut PyObject

Returns the raw FFI pointer represented by self.

§Safety

Callers are responsible for ensuring that the pointer does not outlive self.

The reference is borrowed; callers should not decrease the reference count when they are finished with the pointer.

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pub fn into_ptr(&self) -> *mut PyObject

Returns an owned raw FFI pointer represented by self.

§Safety

The reference is owned; when finished the caller should either transfer ownership of the pointer or decrease the reference count (e.g. with pyo3::ffi::Py_DecRef).

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pub fn py_super(&self) -> PyResult<&PySuper>

Return a proxy object that delegates method calls to a parent or sibling class of type.

This is equivalent to the Python expression super()

Trait Implementations§

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impl AsPyPointer for PyModule

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fn as_ptr(&self) -> *mut PyObject

Gets the underlying FFI pointer, returns a borrowed pointer.

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impl AsRef<PyAny> for PyModule

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fn as_ref(&self) -> &PyAny

Converts this type into a shared reference of the (usually inferred) input type.
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impl Debug for PyModule

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), Error>

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl Deref for PyModule

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type Target = PyAny

The resulting type after dereferencing.
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fn deref(&self) -> &PyAny

Dereferences the value.
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impl Display for PyModule

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), Error>

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<'a> From<&'a PyModule> for &'a PyAny

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fn from(ob: &'a PyModule) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl From<&PyModule> for Py<PyModule>

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fn from(other: &PyModule) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<'py> FromPyObject<'py> for &'py PyModule

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fn extract_bound(obj: &Bound<'py, PyAny>) -> PyResult<Self>

Extracts Self from the bound smart pointer obj. Read more
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fn extract(ob: &'py PyAny) -> PyResult<Self>

Extracts Self from the source GIL Ref obj. Read more
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fn type_input() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as an argument. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyModule>> for &PyModule

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyModule>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl PyNativeType for PyModule

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type AsRefSource = PyModule

The form of this which is stored inside a Py<T> smart pointer.
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fn as_borrowed(&self) -> Borrowed<'_, '_, Self::AsRefSource>

Cast &self to a Borrowed smart pointer. Read more
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fn py(&self) -> Python<'_>

Returns a GIL marker constrained to the lifetime of this type.
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unsafe fn unchecked_downcast(obj: &PyAny) -> &Self

Cast &PyAny to &Self without no type checking. Read more
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impl PyTypeInfo for PyModule

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const NAME: &'static str = "PyModule"

Class name.
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const MODULE: Option<&'static str> = _

Module name, if any.
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fn type_object_raw(py: Python<'_>) -> *mut PyTypeObject

Returns the PyTypeObject instance for this type.
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fn is_type_of_bound(obj: &Bound<'_, PyAny>) -> bool

Checks if object is an instance of this type or a subclass of this type.
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fn type_object(py: Python<'_>) -> &PyType

Returns the safe abstraction over the type object.
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fn type_object_bound(py: Python<'_>) -> Bound<'_, PyType>

Returns the safe abstraction over the type object.
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fn is_type_of(object: &PyAny) -> bool

Checks if object is an instance of this type or a subclass of this type.
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fn is_exact_type_of(object: &PyAny) -> bool

Checks if object is an instance of this type.
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fn is_exact_type_of_bound(object: &Bound<'_, PyAny>) -> bool

Checks if object is an instance of this type.
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impl ToPyObject for PyModule

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fn to_object(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Converts self into a Python object.
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impl DerefToPyAny for PyModule

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

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impl<T> Any for T
where T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> From<T> for T

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fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<'p, T> FromPyPointer<'p> for T
where T: 'p + PyNativeType,

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unsafe fn from_owned_ptr_or_opt( py: Python<'p>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> Option<&'p T>

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject. Read more
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unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr_or_opt( _py: Python<'p>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> Option<&'p T>

Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more
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unsafe fn from_owned_ptr_or_panic( py: Python<'p>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> &'p Self

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject or panic. Read more
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unsafe fn from_owned_ptr(py: Python<'p>, ptr: *mut PyObject) -> &'p Self

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject or panic. Read more
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unsafe fn from_owned_ptr_or_err( py: Python<'p>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> PyResult<&'p Self>

Convert from an arbitrary PyObject. Read more
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unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr_or_panic( py: Python<'p>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> &'p Self

Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more
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unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr(py: Python<'p>, ptr: *mut PyObject) -> &'p Self

Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more
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unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr_or_err( py: Python<'p>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> PyResult<&'p Self>

Convert from an arbitrary borrowed PyObject. Read more
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impl<T> HasPyGilRef for T
where T: PyNativeType,

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type AsRefTarget = T

Utility type to make Py::as_ref work.
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impl<T, U> Into<U> for T
where U: From<T>,

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fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<'v, T> PyTryFrom<'v> for T
where T: PyTypeInfo<AsRefTarget = T> + PyNativeType,

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fn try_from<V>(value: V) -> Result<&'v T, PyDowncastError<'v>>
where V: Into<&'v PyAny>,

👎Deprecated since 0.21.0: use value.downcast::<T>() instead of T::try_from(value)
Cast from a concrete Python object type to PyObject.
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fn try_from_exact<V>(value: V) -> Result<&'v T, PyDowncastError<'v>>
where V: Into<&'v PyAny>,

👎Deprecated since 0.21.0: use value.downcast_exact::<T>() instead of T::try_from_exact(value)
Cast from a concrete Python object type to PyObject. With exact type check.
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unsafe fn try_from_unchecked<V>(value: V) -> &'v T
where V: Into<&'v PyAny>,

👎Deprecated since 0.21.0: use value.downcast_unchecked::<T>() instead of T::try_from_unchecked(value)
Cast a PyAny to a specific type of PyObject. The caller must have already verified the reference is for this type. Read more
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impl<T> PyTypeCheck for T
where T: PyTypeInfo,

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const NAME: &'static str = const NAME: &'static str = <T as PyTypeInfo>::NAME;

Name of self. This is used in error messages, for example.
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fn type_check(object: &Bound<'_, PyAny>) -> bool

Checks if object is an instance of Self, which may include a subtype. Read more
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impl<T> ToString for T
where T: Display + ?Sized,

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default fn to_string(&self) -> String

Converts the given value to a String. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T
where U: Into<T>,

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type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T
where U: TryFrom<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.