Installation

To get started using PyO3 you will need three things: a Rust toolchain, a Python environment, and a way to build. We'll cover each of these below.

If you'd like to chat to the PyO3 maintainers and other PyO3 users, consider joining the PyO3 Discord server. We're keen to hear about your experience getting started, so we can make PyO3 as accessible as possible for everyone!

Rust

First, make sure you have Rust installed on your system. If you haven't already done so, try following the instructions here. PyO3 runs on both the stable and nightly versions so you can choose whichever one fits you best. The minimum required Rust version is 1.63.

If you can run rustc --version and the version is new enough you're good to go!

Python

To use PyO3, you need at least Python 3.7. While you can simply use the default Python interpreter on your system, it is recommended to use a virtual environment.

Virtualenvs

While you can use any virtualenv manager you like, we recommend the use of pyenv in particular if you want to develop or test for multiple different Python versions, so that is what the examples in this book will use. The installation instructions for pyenv can be found here. (Note: To get the pyenv activate and pyenv virtualenv commands, you will also need to install the pyenv-virtualenv plugin. The pyenv installer will install both together.)

It can be useful to keep the sources used when installing using pyenv so that future debugging can see the original source files. This can be done by passing the --keep flag as part of the pyenv install command.

For example:

pyenv install 3.12 --keep

Building

There are a number of build and Python package management systems such as setuptools-rust or manually. We recommend the use of maturin, which you can install here. It is developed to work with PyO3 and provides the most "batteries included" experience, especially if you are aiming to publish to PyPI. maturin is just a Python package, so you can add it in the same way you already install Python packages.

System Python:

pip install maturin --user

pipx:

pipx install maturin

pyenv:

pyenv activate pyo3
pip install maturin

poetry:

poetry add -G dev maturin

After installation, you can run maturin --version to check that you have correctly installed it.

Starting a new project

First you should create the folder and virtual environment that are going to contain your new project. Here we will use the recommended pyenv:

mkdir pyo3-example
cd pyo3-example
pyenv virtualenv pyo3
pyenv local pyo3

After this, you should install your build manager. In this example, we will use maturin. After you've activated your virtualenv, add maturin to it:

pip install maturin

Now you can initialize the new project:

maturin init

If maturin is already installed, you can create a new project using that directly as well:

maturin new -b pyo3 pyo3-example
cd pyo3-example
pyenv virtualenv pyo3
pyenv local pyo3

Adding to an existing project

Sadly, maturin cannot currently be run in existing projects, so if you want to use Python in an existing project you basically have two options:

  1. Create a new project as above and move your existing code into that project
  2. Manually edit your project configuration as necessary

If you opt for the second option, here are the things you need to pay attention to:

Cargo.toml

Make sure that the Rust crate you want to be able to access from Python is compiled into a library. You can have a binary output as well, but the code you want to access from Python has to be in the library part. Also, make sure that the crate type is cdylib and add PyO3 as a dependency as so:

# If you already have [package] information in `Cargo.toml`, you can ignore
# this section!
[package]
# `name` here is name of the package.
name = "pyo3_start"
# these are good defaults:
version = "0.1.0"
edition = "2021"

[lib]
# The name of the native library. This is the name which will be used in Python to import the
# library (i.e. `import string_sum`). If you change this, you must also change the name of the
# `#[pymodule]` in `src/lib.rs`.
name = "pyo3_example"

# "cdylib" is necessary to produce a shared library for Python to import from.
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

[dependencies]
pyo3 = { git = "https://github.com/pyo3/pyo3", features = ["extension-module"] }

pyproject.toml

You should also create a pyproject.toml with the following contents:

[build-system]
requires = ["maturin>=1,<2"]
build-backend = "maturin"

[project]
name = "pyo3_example"
requires-python = ">=3.7"
classifiers = [
    "Programming Language :: Rust",
    "Programming Language :: Python :: Implementation :: CPython",
    "Programming Language :: Python :: Implementation :: PyPy",
]

Running code

After this you can setup Rust code to be available in Python as below; for example, you can place this code in src/lib.rs:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

/// Formats the sum of two numbers as string.
#[pyfunction]
fn sum_as_string(a: usize, b: usize) -> PyResult<String> {
    Ok((a + b).to_string())
}

/// A Python module implemented in Rust. The name of this function must match
/// the `lib.name` setting in the `Cargo.toml`, else Python will not be able to
/// import the module.
#[pymodule]
fn pyo3_example(m: &Bound<'_, PyModule>) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_pyfunction!(sum_as_string, m)?)?;
    Ok(())
}

Now you can run maturin develop to prepare the Python package, after which you can use it like so:

$ maturin develop
# lots of progress output as maturin runs the compilation...
$ python
>>> import pyo3_example
>>> pyo3_example.sum_as_string(5, 20)
'25'

For more instructions on how to use Python code from Rust, see the Python from Rust page.

Maturin Import Hook

In development, any changes in the code would require running maturin develop before testing. To streamline the development process, you may want to install Maturin Import Hook which will run maturin develop automatically when the library with code changes is being imported.