Emulating callable objects

Classes can be callable if they have a #[pymethod] named __call__. This allows instances of a class to behave similar to functions.

This method's signature must look like __call__(<self>, ...) -> object - here, any argument list can be defined as for normal pymethods

Example: Implementing a call counter

The following pyclass is a basic decorator - its constructor takes a Python object as argument and calls that object when called. An equivalent Python implementation is linked at the end.

An example crate containing this pyclass can be found here

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyDict, PyTuple};

/// A function decorator that keeps track how often it is called.
/// It otherwise doesn't do anything special.
#[pyclass(name = "Counter")]
pub struct PyCounter {
    // We use `#[pyo3(get)]` so that python can read the count but not mutate it.
    count: u64,

    // This is the actual function being wrapped.
    wraps: Py<PyAny>,

impl PyCounter {
    // Note that we don't validate whether `wraps` is actually callable.
    // While we could use `PyAny::is_callable` for that, it has some flaws:
    //    1. It doesn't guarantee the object can actually be called successfully
    //    2. We still need to handle any exceptions that the function might raise
    fn __new__(wraps: Py<PyAny>) -> Self {
        PyCounter { count: 0, wraps }

    #[args(args = "*", kwargs = "**")]
    fn __call__(
        &mut self,
        py: Python<'_>,
        args: &PyTuple,
        kwargs: Option<&PyDict>,
    ) -> PyResult<Py<PyAny>> {
        self.count += 1;
        let name = self.wraps.getattr(py, "__name__")?;

        println!("{} has been called {} time(s).", name, self.count);

        // After doing something, we finally forward the call to the wrapped function
        let ret = self.wraps.call(py, args, kwargs)?;

        // We could do something with the return value of
        // the function before returning it

pub fn decorator(_py: Python<'_>, module: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {

Python code:

def say_hello():


assert say_hello.count == 4


say_hello has been called 1 time(s).
say_hello has been called 2 time(s).
say_hello has been called 3 time(s).
say_hello has been called 4 time(s).

Pure Python implementation

A Python implementation of this looks similar to the Rust version:

class Counter:
    def __init__(self, wraps):
        self.count = 0
        self.wraps = wraps

    def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.count += 1
        print(f"{self.wraps.__name__} has been called {self.count} time(s)")
        self.wraps(*args, **kwargs)

Note that it can also be implemented as a higher order function:

def Counter(wraps):
    count = 0
    def call(*args, **kwargs):
        nonlocal count
        count += 1
        print(f"{wraps.__name__} has been called {count} time(s)")
        return wraps(*args, **kwargs)
    return call