PyO3's attributes (#[pyclass], #[pymodule], etc.) are procedural macros, which means that they rewrite the source of the annotated item. You can view the generated source with the following command, which also expands a few other things:

cargo rustc --profile=check -- -Z unstable-options --pretty=expanded >; rustfmt

(You might need to install rustfmt if you don't already have it.)

You can also debug classic !-macros by adding -Z trace-macros:

cargo rustc --profile=check -- -Z unstable-options --pretty=expanded -Z trace-macros >; rustfmt

Note that those commands require using the nightly build of rust and may occasionally have bugs. See cargo expand for a more elaborate and stable version of those commands.

Running with Valgrind

Valgrind is a tool to detect memory management bugs such as memory leaks.

You first need to install a debug build of Python, otherwise Valgrind won't produce usable results. In Ubuntu there's e.g. a python3-dbg package.

Activate an environment with the debug interpreter and recompile. If you're on Linux, use ldd with the name of your binary and check that you're linking e.g. instead of

Download the suppressions file for CPython.

Run Valgrind with valgrind --suppressions=valgrind-python.supp ./my-command --with-options

Getting a stacktrace

The best start to investigate a crash such as an segmentation fault is a backtrace. You can set RUST_BACKTRACE=1 as an environment variable to get the stack trace on a panic!. Alternatively you can use a debugger such as gdb to explore the issue. Rust provides a wrapper, rust-gdb, which has pretty-printers for inspecting Rust variables. Since PyO3 uses cdylib for Python shared objects, it does not receive the pretty-print debug hooks in rust-gdb (rust-lang/rust#96365). The mentioned issue contains a workaround for enabling pretty-printers in this case.

  • Link against a debug build of python as described in the previous chapter
  • Run rust-gdb <my-binary>
  • Set a breakpoint (b) on rust_panic if you are investigating a panic!
  • Enter r to run
  • After the crash occurred, enter bt or bt full to print the stacktrace

Often it is helpful to run a small piece of Python code to exercise a section of Rust.

rust-gdb --args python -c "import my_package; my_package.sum_to_string(1, 2)"