Python Exceptions

Defining a new exception

You can use the create_exception! macro to define a new exception type:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::create_exception;

create_exception!(module, MyError, pyo3::exceptions::PyException);
}
  • module is the name of the containing module.
  • MyError is the name of the new exception type.

For example:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::create_exception;
use pyo3::types::IntoPyDict;
use pyo3::exceptions::PyException;

create_exception!(mymodule, CustomError, PyException);

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let ctx = [("CustomError", py.get_type::<CustomError>())].into_py_dict(py);
    pyo3::py_run!(py, *ctx, "assert str(CustomError) == \"<class 'mymodule.CustomError'>\"");
    pyo3::py_run!(py, *ctx, "assert CustomError('oops').args == ('oops',)");
});
}

When using PyO3 to create an extension module, you can add the new exception to the module like this, so that it is importable from Python:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyModule;
use pyo3::exceptions::PyException;

pyo3::create_exception!(mymodule, CustomError, PyException);

#[pymodule]
fn mymodule(py: Python<'_>, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    // ... other elements added to module ...
    m.add("CustomError", py.get_type::<CustomError>())?;

    Ok(())
}

}

Raising an exception

To raise an exception from pyfunctions and pymethods, you should return an Err(PyErr). If returned to Python code, this PyErr will then be raised as a Python exception. Many PyO3 APIs also return PyResult.

If a Rust type exists for the exception, then it is possible to use the new_err method. For example, each standard exception defined in the pyo3::exceptions module has a corresponding Rust type and exceptions defined by create_exception! and import_exception! macro have Rust types as well.

use pyo3::exceptions::PyZeroDivisionError;
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyfunction]
fn divide(a: i32, b: i32) -> PyResult<i32> {
    match a.checked_div(b) {
        Some(q) => Ok(q),
        None => Err(PyZeroDivisionError::new_err("division by zero")),
    }
}

fn main(){
	Python::with_gil(|py|{
		let fun = pyo3::wrap_pyfunction!(divide, py).unwrap();
		fun.call1((1,0)).unwrap_err();
		fun.call1((1,1)).unwrap();
	});
}

You can manually write and fetch errors in the Python interpreter's global state:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::{Python, PyErr};
use pyo3::exceptions::PyTypeError;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    PyTypeError::new_err("Error").restore(py);
    assert!(PyErr::occurred(py));
    drop(PyErr::fetch(py));
});
}

If you already have a Python exception object, you can use PyErr::from_value to create a PyErr from it.

Checking exception types

Python has an isinstance method to check an object's type. In PyO3 every object has the PyAny::is_instance and PyAny::is_instance_of methods which do the same thing.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::Python;
use pyo3::types::{PyBool, PyList};

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    assert!(PyBool::new(py, true).is_instance_of::<PyBool>().unwrap());
    let list = PyList::new(py, &[1, 2, 3, 4]);
    assert!(!list.is_instance_of::<PyBool>().unwrap());
    assert!(list.is_instance_of::<PyList>().unwrap());
});
}

To check the type of an exception, you can similarly do:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::exceptions::PyTypeError;
use pyo3::prelude::*;
Python::with_gil(|py| {
let err = PyTypeError::new_err(());
err.is_instance_of::<PyTypeError>(py);
});
}

Handling Rust errors

The vast majority of operations in this library will return PyResult<T>, which is an alias for the type Result<T, PyErr>.

A PyErr represents a Python exception. Errors within the PyO3 library are also exposed as Python exceptions.

If your code has a custom error type, adding an implementation of std::convert::From<MyError> for PyErr is usually enough. PyO3 will then automatically convert your error to a Python exception when needed.

The following code snippet defines a Rust error named CustomIOError. In its From<CustomIOError> for PyErr implementation it returns a PyErr representing Python's OSError.

use pyo3::exceptions::PyOSError;
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use std::fmt;

#[derive(Debug)]
struct CustomIOError;

impl std::error::Error for CustomIOError {}

impl fmt::Display for CustomIOError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "Oh no!")
    }
}

impl std::convert::From<CustomIOError> for PyErr {
    fn from(err: CustomIOError) -> PyErr {
        PyOSError::new_err(err.to_string())
    }
}

pub struct Connection { /* ... */}

fn bind(addr: String) -> Result<Connection, CustomIOError> {
    if &addr == "0.0.0.0"{
        Err(CustomIOError)
    } else {
        Ok(Connection{ /* ... */})
    }
}

#[pyfunction]
fn connect(s: String) -> Result<(), CustomIOError> {
    bind(s)?;
    Ok(())
}

fn main() {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        let fun = pyo3::wrap_pyfunction!(connect, py).unwrap();
        let err = fun.call1(("0.0.0.0",)).unwrap_err();
        assert!(err.is_instance_of::<PyOSError>(py));
    });
}

This has been implemented for most of Rust's standard library errors, so that you can use the ? ("try") operator with them. The following code snippet will raise a ValueError in Python if String::parse() returns an error.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn parse_int(s: String) -> PyResult<usize> {
    Ok(s.parse::<usize>()?)
}

use pyo3::exceptions::PyValueError;

fn main() {
    Python::with_gil(|py| {
        assert_eq!(parse_int(String::from("1")).unwrap(), 1);
        assert_eq!(parse_int(String::from("1337")).unwrap(), 1337);

        assert!(parse_int(String::from("-1"))
            .unwrap_err()
            .is_instance_of::<PyValueError>(py));
        assert!(parse_int(String::from("foo"))
            .unwrap_err()
            .is_instance_of::<PyValueError>(py));
        assert!(parse_int(String::from("13.37"))
            .unwrap_err()
            .is_instance_of::<PyValueError>(py));
    })
}

If lazy construction of the Python exception instance is desired, the PyErrArguments trait can be implemented. In that case, actual exception argument creation is delayed until the PyErr is needed.

Using exceptions defined in Python code

It is possible to use an exception defined in Python code as a native Rust type. The import_exception! macro allows importing a specific exception class and defines a Rust type for that exception.


#![allow(unused)]
#![allow(dead_code)]
fn main() {
use pyo3::prelude::*;

mod io {
    pyo3::import_exception!(io, UnsupportedOperation);
}

fn tell(file: &PyAny) -> PyResult<u64> {
    match file.call_method0("tell") {
        Err(_) => Err(io::UnsupportedOperation::new_err("not supported: tell")),
        Ok(x) => x.extract::<u64>(),
    }
}

}

pyo3::exceptions defines exceptions for several standard library modules.