Struct pyo3::Borrowed

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pub struct Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>(/* private fields */);
Expand description

A borrowed equivalent to Bound.

The advantage of this over &Bound is that it avoids the need to have a pointer-to-pointer, as Bound is already a pointer to an `ffi::PyObject``.

Similarly, this type is Copy and Clone, like a shared reference (&T).

Implementations§

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impl<'py, T> Borrowed<'_, 'py, T>

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pub fn to_owned(self) -> Bound<'py, T>

Creates a new owned Bound<T> from this borrowed reference by increasing the reference count.

§Example
use pyo3::{prelude::*, types::PyTuple};

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let tuple = PyTuple::new_bound(py, [1, 2, 3]);

    // borrows from `tuple`, so can only be
    // used while `tuple` stays alive
    let borrowed = tuple.get_borrowed_item(0)?;

    // creates a new owned reference, which
    // can be used indendently of `tuple`
    let bound = borrowed.to_owned();
    drop(tuple);

    assert_eq!(bound.extract::<i32>().unwrap(), 1);
    Ok(())
})
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impl<'a, 'py> Borrowed<'a, 'py, PyAny>

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pub unsafe fn from_ptr(py: Python<'py>, ptr: *mut PyObject) -> Self

Constructs a new Borrowed<'a, 'py, PyAny> from a pointer. Panics if ptr is null.

Prefer to use Bound::from_borrowed_ptr, as that avoids the major safety risk of needing to precisely define the lifetime 'a for which the borrow is valid.

§Safety
  • ptr must be a valid pointer to a Python object
  • similar to std::slice::from_raw_parts, the lifetime 'a is completely defined by the caller and it is the caller’s responsibility to ensure that the reference this is derived from is valid for the lifetime 'a.
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pub unsafe fn from_ptr_or_opt( py: Python<'py>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> Option<Self>

Constructs a new Borrowed<'a, 'py, PyAny> from a pointer. Returns None if ptr is null.

Prefer to use Bound::from_borrowed_ptr_or_opt, as that avoids the major safety risk of needing to precisely define the lifetime 'a for which the borrow is valid.

§Safety
  • ptr must be a valid pointer to a Python object, or null
  • similar to std::slice::from_raw_parts, the lifetime 'a is completely defined by the caller and it is the caller’s responsibility to ensure that the reference this is derived from is valid for the lifetime 'a.
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pub unsafe fn from_ptr_or_err( py: Python<'py>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> PyResult<Self>

Constructs a new Borrowed<'a, 'py, PyAny> from a pointer. Returns an Err by calling PyErr::fetch if ptr is null.

Prefer to use Bound::from_borrowed_ptr_or_err, as that avoids the major safety risk of needing to precisely define the lifetime 'a for which the borrow is valid.

§Safety
  • ptr must be a valid pointer to a Python object, or null
  • similar to std::slice::from_raw_parts, the lifetime 'a is completely defined by the caller and it is the caller’s responsibility to ensure that the reference this is derived from is valid for the lifetime 'a.

Methods from Deref<Target = Bound<'py, T>>§

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pub fn borrow(&self) -> PyRef<'py, T>

Immutably borrows the value T.

This borrow lasts while the returned PyRef exists. Multiple immutable borrows can be taken out at the same time.

For frozen classes, the simpler get is available.

§Examples
#[pyclass]
struct Foo {
    inner: u8,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let foo: Bound<'_, Foo> = Bound::new(py, Foo { inner: 73 })?;
    let inner: &u8 = &foo.borrow().inner;

    assert_eq!(*inner, 73);
    Ok(())
})?;
§Panics

Panics if the value is currently mutably borrowed. For a non-panicking variant, use try_borrow.

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pub fn borrow_mut(&self) -> PyRefMut<'py, T>
where T: PyClass<Frozen = False>,

Mutably borrows the value T.

This borrow lasts while the returned PyRefMut exists.

§Examples
#[pyclass]
struct Foo {
    inner: u8,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let foo: Bound<'_, Foo> = Bound::new(py, Foo { inner: 73 })?;
    foo.borrow_mut().inner = 35;

    assert_eq!(foo.borrow().inner, 35);
    Ok(())
})?;
§Panics

Panics if the value is currently borrowed. For a non-panicking variant, use try_borrow_mut.

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pub fn try_borrow(&self) -> Result<PyRef<'py, T>, PyBorrowError>

Attempts to immutably borrow the value T, returning an error if the value is currently mutably borrowed.

The borrow lasts while the returned PyRef exists.

This is the non-panicking variant of borrow.

For frozen classes, the simpler get is available.

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pub fn try_borrow_mut(&self) -> Result<PyRefMut<'py, T>, PyBorrowMutError>
where T: PyClass<Frozen = False>,

Attempts to mutably borrow the value T, returning an error if the value is currently borrowed.

The borrow lasts while the returned PyRefMut exists.

This is the non-panicking variant of borrow_mut.

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pub fn get(&self) -> &T
where T: PyClass<Frozen = True> + Sync,

Provide an immutable borrow of the value T without acquiring the GIL.

This is available if the class is frozen and Sync.

§Examples
use std::sync::atomic::{AtomicUsize, Ordering};

#[pyclass(frozen)]
struct FrozenCounter {
    value: AtomicUsize,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let counter = FrozenCounter { value: AtomicUsize::new(0) };

    let py_counter = Bound::new(py, counter).unwrap();

    py_counter.get().value.fetch_add(1, Ordering::Relaxed);
});
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pub fn py(&self) -> Python<'py>

Returns the GIL token associated with this object.

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pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *mut PyObject

Returns the raw FFI pointer represented by self.

§Safety

Callers are responsible for ensuring that the pointer does not outlive self.

The reference is borrowed; callers should not decrease the reference count when they are finished with the pointer.

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pub fn as_any(&self) -> &Bound<'py, PyAny>

Helper to cast to Bound<'py, PyAny>.

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pub fn as_borrowed<'a>(&'a self) -> Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>

Casts this Bound<T> to a Borrowed<T> smart pointer.

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pub fn as_unbound(&self) -> &Py<T>

Removes the connection for this Bound<T> from the GIL, allowing it to cross thread boundaries, without transferring ownership.

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pub fn as_gil_ref(&'py self) -> &'py T::AsRefTarget
where T: HasPyGilRef,

Casts this Bound<T> as the corresponding “GIL Ref” type.

This is a helper to be used for migration from the deprecated “GIL Refs” API.

Trait Implementations§

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impl<'py> Add for Borrowed<'_, 'py, PyComplex>

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type Output = Bound<'py, PyComplex>

The resulting type after applying the + operator.
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fn add(self, other: Self) -> Self::Output

Performs the + operation. Read more
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impl<T> Clone for Borrowed<'_, '_, T>

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fn clone(&self) -> Self

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl<T> Debug for Borrowed<'_, '_, T>

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<'py, T> Deref for Borrowed<'_, 'py, T>

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type Target = Bound<'py, T>

The resulting type after dereferencing.
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fn deref(&self) -> &Bound<'py, T>

Dereferences the value.
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impl<'py> Div for Borrowed<'_, 'py, PyComplex>

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type Output = Bound<'py, PyComplex>

The resulting type after applying the / operator.
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fn div(self, other: Self) -> Self::Output

Performs the / operation. Read more
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impl<'a, 'py, T> From<&'a Bound<'py, T>> for Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>

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fn from(instance: &'a Bound<'py, T>) -> Self

Create borrow on a Bound

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impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Borrowed<'_, '_, T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Converts Py instance -> PyObject.

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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<'py> Mul for Borrowed<'_, 'py, PyComplex>

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type Output = Bound<'py, PyComplex>

The resulting type after applying the * operator.
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fn mul(self, other: Self) -> Self::Output

Performs the * operation. Read more
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impl<'py> Neg for Borrowed<'_, 'py, PyComplex>

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type Output = Bound<'py, PyComplex>

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn neg(self) -> Self::Output

Performs the unary - operation. Read more
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impl<'py> Sub for Borrowed<'_, 'py, PyComplex>

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type Output = Bound<'py, PyComplex>

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn sub(self, other: Self) -> Self::Output

Performs the - operation. Read more
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impl<T> ToPyObject for Borrowed<'_, '_, T>

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fn to_object(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Converts Py instance -> PyObject.

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impl<T> Copy for Borrowed<'_, '_, T>

Auto Trait Implementations§

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impl<'a, 'py, T> RefUnwindSafe for Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>
where T: RefUnwindSafe,

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impl<'a, 'py, T> !Send for Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>

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impl<'a, 'py, T> !Sync for Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>

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impl<'a, 'py, T> Unpin for Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>

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impl<'a, 'py, T> UnwindSafe for Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>
where T: RefUnwindSafe,

Blanket Implementations§

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impl<T> Any for T
where T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> From<T> for T

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fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<T, U> Into<U> for T
where U: From<T>,

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fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<T> IntoEither for T

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fn into_either(self, into_left: bool) -> Either<Self, Self>

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left is true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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fn into_either_with<F>(self, into_left: F) -> Either<Self, Self>
where F: FnOnce(&Self) -> bool,

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left(&self) returns true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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impl<T> ToOwned for T
where T: Clone,

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type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
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fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
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fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T
where U: Into<T>,

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type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T
where U: TryFrom<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.