Struct pyo3::pybacked::PyBackedBytes

source
pub struct PyBackedBytes { /* private fields */ }
Expand description

A wrapper around [u8] where the storage is either owned by a Python bytes object, or a Rust Box<[u8]>.

This type gives access to the underlying data via a Deref implementation.

Methods from Deref<Target = [u8]>

1.79.0source

pub fn utf8_chunks(&self) -> Utf8Chunks<'_>

Creates an iterator over the contiguous valid UTF-8 ranges of this slice, and the non-UTF-8 fragments in between.

Examples

This function formats arbitrary but mostly-UTF-8 bytes into Rust source code in the form of a C-string literal (c"...").

use std::fmt::Write as _;

pub fn cstr_literal(bytes: &[u8]) -> String {
    let mut repr = String::new();
    repr.push_str("c\"");
    for chunk in bytes.utf8_chunks() {
        for ch in chunk.valid().chars() {
            // Escapes \0, \t, \r, \n, \\, \', \", and uses \u{...} for non-printable characters.
            write!(repr, "{}", ch.escape_debug()).unwrap();
        }
        for byte in chunk.invalid() {
            write!(repr, "\\x{:02X}", byte).unwrap();
        }
    }
    repr.push('"');
    repr
}

fn main() {
    let lit = cstr_literal(b"\xferris the \xf0\x9f\xa6\x80\x07");
    let expected = stringify!(c"\xFErris the 馃\u{7}");
    assert_eq!(lit, expected);
}
1.23.0source

pub fn is_ascii(&self) -> bool

Checks if all bytes in this slice are within the ASCII range.

source

pub fn as_ascii(&self) -> Option<&[AsciiChar]>

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ascii_char)

If this slice is_ascii, returns it as a slice of ASCII characters, otherwise returns None.

source

pub unsafe fn as_ascii_unchecked(&self) -> &[AsciiChar]

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ascii_char)

Converts this slice of bytes into a slice of ASCII characters, without checking whether they鈥檙e valid.

Safety

Every byte in the slice must be in 0..=127, or else this is UB.

1.23.0source

pub fn eq_ignore_ascii_case(&self, other: &[u8]) -> bool

Checks that two slices are an ASCII case-insensitive match.

Same as to_ascii_lowercase(a) == to_ascii_lowercase(b), but without allocating and copying temporaries.

1.60.0source

pub fn escape_ascii(&self) -> EscapeAscii<'_>

Returns an iterator that produces an escaped version of this slice, treating it as an ASCII string.

Examples

let s = b"0\t\r\n'\"\\\x9d";
let escaped = s.escape_ascii().to_string();
assert_eq!(escaped, "0\\t\\r\\n\\'\\\"\\\\\\x9d");
1.80.0source

pub fn trim_ascii_start(&self) -> &[u8]

Returns a byte slice with leading ASCII whitespace bytes removed.

鈥榃hitespace鈥 refers to the definition used by u8::is_ascii_whitespace.

Examples
assert_eq!(b" \t hello world\n".trim_ascii_start(), b"hello world\n");
assert_eq!(b"  ".trim_ascii_start(), b"");
assert_eq!(b"".trim_ascii_start(), b"");
1.80.0source

pub fn trim_ascii_end(&self) -> &[u8]

Returns a byte slice with trailing ASCII whitespace bytes removed.

鈥榃hitespace鈥 refers to the definition used by u8::is_ascii_whitespace.

Examples
assert_eq!(b"\r hello world\n ".trim_ascii_end(), b"\r hello world");
assert_eq!(b"  ".trim_ascii_end(), b"");
assert_eq!(b"".trim_ascii_end(), b"");
1.80.0source

pub fn trim_ascii(&self) -> &[u8]

Returns a byte slice with leading and trailing ASCII whitespace bytes removed.

鈥榃hitespace鈥 refers to the definition used by u8::is_ascii_whitespace.

Examples
assert_eq!(b"\r hello world\n ".trim_ascii(), b"hello world");
assert_eq!(b"  ".trim_ascii(), b"");
assert_eq!(b"".trim_ascii(), b"");
source

pub fn as_str(&self) -> &str

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ascii_char)

Views this slice of ASCII characters as a UTF-8 str.

source

pub fn as_bytes(&self) -> &[u8]

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ascii_char)

Views this slice of ASCII characters as a slice of u8 bytes.

1.80.0source

pub fn as_flattened(&self) -> &[T]

Takes a &[[T; N]], and flattens it to a &[T].

Panics

This panics if the length of the resulting slice would overflow a usize.

This is only possible when flattening a slice of arrays of zero-sized types, and thus tends to be irrelevant in practice. If size_of::<T>() > 0, this will never panic.

Examples
assert_eq!([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]].as_flattened(), &[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);

assert_eq!(
    [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]].as_flattened(),
    [[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]].as_flattened(),
);

let slice_of_empty_arrays: &[[i32; 0]] = &[[], [], [], [], []];
assert!(slice_of_empty_arrays.as_flattened().is_empty());

let empty_slice_of_arrays: &[[u32; 10]] = &[];
assert!(empty_slice_of_arrays.as_flattened().is_empty());
1.0.0source

pub fn len(&self) -> usize

Returns the number of elements in the slice.

Examples
let a = [1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);
1.0.0source

pub fn is_empty(&self) -> bool

Returns true if the slice has a length of 0.

Examples
let a = [1, 2, 3];
assert!(!a.is_empty());

let b: &[i32] = &[];
assert!(b.is_empty());
1.0.0source

pub fn first(&self) -> Option<&T>

Returns the first element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&10), v.first());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(None, w.first());
1.5.0source

pub fn split_first(&self) -> Option<(&T, &[T])>

Returns the first and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((first, elements)) = x.split_first() {
    assert_eq!(first, &0);
    assert_eq!(elements, &[1, 2]);
}
1.5.0source

pub fn split_last(&self) -> Option<(&T, &[T])>

Returns the last and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((last, elements)) = x.split_last() {
    assert_eq!(last, &2);
    assert_eq!(elements, &[0, 1]);
}
1.0.0source

pub fn last(&self) -> Option<&T>

Returns the last element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&30), v.last());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(None, w.last());
1.77.0source

pub fn first_chunk<const N: usize>(&self) -> Option<&[T; N]>

Return an array reference to the first N items in the slice.

If the slice is not at least N in length, this will return None.

Examples
let u = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&[10, 40]), u.first_chunk::<2>());

let v: &[i32] = &[10];
assert_eq!(None, v.first_chunk::<2>());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(Some(&[]), w.first_chunk::<0>());
1.77.0source

pub fn split_first_chunk<const N: usize>(&self) -> Option<(&[T; N], &[T])>

Return an array reference to the first N items in the slice and the remaining slice.

If the slice is not at least N in length, this will return None.

Examples
let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((first, elements)) = x.split_first_chunk::<2>() {
    assert_eq!(first, &[0, 1]);
    assert_eq!(elements, &[2]);
}

assert_eq!(None, x.split_first_chunk::<4>());
1.77.0source

pub fn split_last_chunk<const N: usize>(&self) -> Option<(&[T], &[T; N])>

Return an array reference to the last N items in the slice and the remaining slice.

If the slice is not at least N in length, this will return None.

Examples
let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((elements, last)) = x.split_last_chunk::<2>() {
    assert_eq!(elements, &[0]);
    assert_eq!(last, &[1, 2]);
}

assert_eq!(None, x.split_last_chunk::<4>());
1.77.0source

pub fn last_chunk<const N: usize>(&self) -> Option<&[T; N]>

Return an array reference to the last N items in the slice.

If the slice is not at least N in length, this will return None.

Examples
let u = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&[40, 30]), u.last_chunk::<2>());

let v: &[i32] = &[10];
assert_eq!(None, v.last_chunk::<2>());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(Some(&[]), w.last_chunk::<0>());
1.0.0source

pub fn get<I>(&self, index: I) -> Option<&<I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output>
where I: SliceIndex<[T]>,

Returns a reference to an element or subslice depending on the type of index.

  • If given a position, returns a reference to the element at that position or None if out of bounds.
  • If given a range, returns the subslice corresponding to that range, or None if out of bounds.
Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&40), v.get(1));
assert_eq!(Some(&[10, 40][..]), v.get(0..2));
assert_eq!(None, v.get(3));
assert_eq!(None, v.get(0..4));
1.0.0source

pub unsafe fn get_unchecked<I>( &self, index: I ) -> &<I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output
where I: SliceIndex<[T]>,

Returns a reference to an element or subslice, without doing bounds checking.

For a safe alternative see get.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used.

You can think of this like .get(index).unwrap_unchecked(). It鈥檚 UB to call .get_unchecked(len), even if you immediately convert to a pointer. And it鈥檚 UB to call .get_unchecked(..len + 1), .get_unchecked(..=len), or similar.

Examples
let x = &[1, 2, 4];

unsafe {
    assert_eq!(x.get_unchecked(1), &2);
}
1.0.0source

pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *const T

Returns a raw pointer to the slice鈥檚 buffer.

The caller must ensure that the slice outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage.

The caller must also ensure that the memory the pointer (non-transitively) points to is never written to (except inside an UnsafeCell) using this pointer or any pointer derived from it. If you need to mutate the contents of the slice, use as_mut_ptr.

Modifying the container referenced by this slice may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

Examples
let x = &[1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_ptr();

unsafe {
    for i in 0..x.len() {
        assert_eq!(x.get_unchecked(i), &*x_ptr.add(i));
    }
}
1.48.0source

pub fn as_ptr_range(&self) -> Range<*const T>

Returns the two raw pointers spanning the slice.

The returned range is half-open, which means that the end pointer points one past the last element of the slice. This way, an empty slice is represented by two equal pointers, and the difference between the two pointers represents the size of the slice.

See as_ptr for warnings on using these pointers. The end pointer requires extra caution, as it does not point to a valid element in the slice.

This function is useful for interacting with foreign interfaces which use two pointers to refer to a range of elements in memory, as is common in C++.

It can also be useful to check if a pointer to an element refers to an element of this slice:

let a = [1, 2, 3];
let x = &a[1] as *const _;
let y = &5 as *const _;

assert!(a.as_ptr_range().contains(&x));
assert!(!a.as_ptr_range().contains(&y));
1.0.0source

pub fn iter(&self) -> Iter<'_, T>

Returns an iterator over the slice.

The iterator yields all items from start to end.

Examples
let x = &[1, 2, 4];
let mut iterator = x.iter();

assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&1));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&2));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&4));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), None);
1.0.0source

pub fn windows(&self, size: usize) -> Windows<'_, T>

Returns an iterator over all contiguous windows of length size. The windows overlap. If the slice is shorter than size, the iterator returns no values.

Panics

Panics if size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.windows(3);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o', 'r']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r', 'e']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e', 'm']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If the slice is shorter than size:

let slice = ['f', 'o', 'o'];
let mut iter = slice.windows(4);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

There鈥檚 no windows_mut, as that existing would let safe code violate the 鈥渙nly one &mut at a time to the same thing鈥 rule. However, you can sometimes use Cell::as_slice_of_cells in conjunction with windows to accomplish something similar:

use std::cell::Cell;

let mut array = ['R', 'u', 's', 't', ' ', '2', '0', '1', '5'];
let slice = &mut array[..];
let slice_of_cells: &[Cell<char>] = Cell::from_mut(slice).as_slice_of_cells();
for w in slice_of_cells.windows(3) {
    Cell::swap(&w[0], &w[2]);
}
assert_eq!(array, ['s', 't', ' ', '2', '0', '1', '5', 'u', 'R']);
1.0.0source

pub fn chunks(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> Chunks<'_, T>

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See chunks_exact for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and rchunks for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.chunks(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['m']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
1.31.0source

pub fn chunks_exact(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> ChunksExact<'_, T>

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks.

See chunks for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and rchunks_exact for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.chunks_exact(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['m']);
source

pub unsafe fn as_chunks_unchecked<const N: usize>(&self) -> &[[T; N]]

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, assuming that there鈥檚 no remainder.

Safety

This may only be called when

  • The slice splits exactly into N-element chunks (aka self.len() % N == 0).
  • N != 0.
Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice: &[char] = &['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm', '!'];
let chunks: &[[char; 1]] =
    // SAFETY: 1-element chunks never have remainder
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked() };
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l'], ['o'], ['r'], ['e'], ['m'], ['!']]);
let chunks: &[[char; 3]] =
    // SAFETY: The slice length (6) is a multiple of 3
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked() };
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l', 'o', 'r'], ['e', 'm', '!']]);

// These would be unsound:
// let chunks: &[[_; 5]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked() // The slice length is not a multiple of 5
// let chunks: &[[_; 0]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked() // Zero-length chunks are never allowed
source

pub fn as_chunks<const N: usize>(&self) -> (&[[T; N]], &[T])

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the beginning of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let (chunks, remainder) = slice.as_chunks();
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l', 'o'], ['r', 'e']]);
assert_eq!(remainder, &['m']);

If you expect the slice to be an exact multiple, you can combine let-else with an empty slice pattern:

#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice = ['R', 'u', 's', 't'];
let (chunks, []) = slice.as_chunks::<2>() else {
    panic!("slice didn't have even length")
};
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['R', 'u'], ['s', 't']]);
source

pub fn as_rchunks<const N: usize>(&self) -> (&[T], &[[T; N]])

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the end of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let (remainder, chunks) = slice.as_rchunks();
assert_eq!(remainder, &['l']);
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['o', 'r'], ['e', 'm']]);
source

pub fn array_chunks<const N: usize>(&self) -> ArrayChunks<'_, T, N>

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (array_chunks)

Returns an iterator over N elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are array references and do not overlap. If N does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to N-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

This method is the const generic equivalent of chunks_exact.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(array_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.array_chunks();
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['m']);
source

pub fn array_windows<const N: usize>(&self) -> ArrayWindows<'_, T, N>

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (array_windows)

Returns an iterator over overlapping windows of N elements of a slice, starting at the beginning of the slice.

This is the const generic equivalent of windows.

If N is greater than the size of the slice, it will return no windows.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(array_windows)]
let slice = [0, 1, 2, 3];
let mut iter = slice.array_windows();
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[0, 1]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[1, 2]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[2, 3]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
1.31.0source

pub fn rchunks(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunks<'_, T>

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See rchunks_exact for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and chunks for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.rchunks(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['e', 'm']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
1.31.0source

pub fn rchunks_exact(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunksExact<'_, T>

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of rchunks.

See rchunks for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and chunks_exact for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.rchunks_exact(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['e', 'm']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['l']);
1.77.0source

pub fn chunk_by<F>(&self, pred: F) -> ChunkBy<'_, T, F>
where F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> bool,

Returns an iterator over the slice producing non-overlapping runs of elements using the predicate to separate them.

The predicate is called for every pair of consecutive elements, meaning that it is called on slice[0] and slice[1], followed by slice[1] and slice[2], and so on.

Examples
let slice = &[1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2];

let mut iter = slice.chunk_by(|a, b| a == b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[1, 1, 1][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[3, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 2, 2][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);

This method can be used to extract the sorted subslices:

let slice = &[1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4];

let mut iter = slice.chunk_by(|a, b| a <= b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[1, 1, 2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 3, 4][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);
1.0.0source

pub fn split_at(&self, mid: usize) -> (&[T], &[T])

Divides one slice into two at an index.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

Panics

Panics if mid > len. For a non-panicking alternative see split_at_checked.

Examples
let v = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

{
   let (left, right) = v.split_at(0);
   assert_eq!(left, []);
   assert_eq!(right, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

{
    let (left, right) = v.split_at(2);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2]);
    assert_eq!(right, [3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

{
    let (left, right) = v.split_at(6);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
    assert_eq!(right, []);
}
1.79.0source

pub unsafe fn split_at_unchecked(&self, mid: usize) -> (&[T], &[T])

Divides one slice into two at an index, without doing bounds checking.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

For a safe alternative see split_at.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used. The caller has to ensure that 0 <= mid <= self.len().

Examples
let v = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

unsafe {
   let (left, right) = v.split_at_unchecked(0);
   assert_eq!(left, []);
   assert_eq!(right, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

unsafe {
    let (left, right) = v.split_at_unchecked(2);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2]);
    assert_eq!(right, [3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

unsafe {
    let (left, right) = v.split_at_unchecked(6);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
    assert_eq!(right, []);
}
1.80.0source

pub fn split_at_checked(&self, mid: usize) -> Option<(&[T], &[T])>

Divides one slice into two at an index, returning None if the slice is too short.

If mid 鈮 len returns a pair of slices where the first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

Otherwise, if mid > len, returns None.

Examples
let v = [1, -2, 3, -4, 5, -6];

{
   let (left, right) = v.split_at_checked(0).unwrap();
   assert_eq!(left, []);
   assert_eq!(right, [1, -2, 3, -4, 5, -6]);
}

{
    let (left, right) = v.split_at_checked(2).unwrap();
    assert_eq!(left, [1, -2]);
    assert_eq!(right, [3, -4, 5, -6]);
}

{
    let (left, right) = v.split_at_checked(6).unwrap();
    assert_eq!(left, [1, -2, 3, -4, 5, -6]);
    assert_eq!(right, []);
}

assert_eq!(None, v.split_at_checked(7));
1.0.0source

pub fn split<F>(&self, pred: F) -> Split<'_, T, F>
where F: FnMut(&T) -> bool,

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples
let slice = [10, 40, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If the first element is matched, an empty slice will be the first item returned by the iterator. Similarly, if the last element in the slice is matched, an empty slice will be the last item returned by the iterator:

let slice = [10, 40, 33];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If two matched elements are directly adjacent, an empty slice will be present between them:

let slice = [10, 6, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
1.51.0source

pub fn split_inclusive<F>(&self, pred: F) -> SplitInclusive<'_, T, F>
where F: FnMut(&T) -> bool,

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is contained in the end of the previous subslice as a terminator.

Examples
let slice = [10, 40, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split_inclusive(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40, 33]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If the last element of the slice is matched, that element will be considered the terminator of the preceding slice. That slice will be the last item returned by the iterator.

let slice = [3, 10, 40, 33];
let mut iter = slice.split_inclusive(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[3]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40, 33]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
1.27.0source

pub fn rsplit<F>(&self, pred: F) -> RSplit<'_, T, F>
where F: FnMut(&T) -> bool,

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, starting at the end of the slice and working backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples
let slice = [11, 22, 33, 0, 44, 55];
let mut iter = slice.rsplit(|num| *num == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[44, 55]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[11, 22, 33]);
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);

As with split(), if the first or last element is matched, an empty slice will be the first (or last) item returned by the iterator.

let v = &[0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8];
let mut it = v.rsplit(|n| *n % 2 == 0);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[3, 5]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[1, 1]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(it.next(), None);
1.0.0source

pub fn splitn<F>(&self, n: usize, pred: F) -> SplitN<'_, T, F>
where F: FnMut(&T) -> bool,

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, limited to returning at most n items. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples

Print the slice split once by numbers divisible by 3 (i.e., [10, 40], [20, 60, 50]):

let v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.splitn(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    println!("{group:?}");
}
1.0.0source

pub fn rsplitn<F>(&self, n: usize, pred: F) -> RSplitN<'_, T, F>
where F: FnMut(&T) -> bool,

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred limited to returning at most n items. This starts at the end of the slice and works backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples

Print the slice split once, starting from the end, by numbers divisible by 3 (i.e., [50], [10, 40, 30, 20]):

let v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.rsplitn(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    println!("{group:?}");
}
source

pub fn split_once<F>(&self, pred: F) -> Option<(&[T], &[T])>
where F: FnMut(&T) -> bool,

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_split_once)

Splits the slice on the first element that matches the specified predicate.

If any matching elements are present in the slice, returns the prefix before the match and suffix after. The matching element itself is not included. If no elements match, returns None.

Examples
#![feature(slice_split_once)]
let s = [1, 2, 3, 2, 4];
assert_eq!(s.split_once(|&x| x == 2), Some((
    &[1][..],
    &[3, 2, 4][..]
)));
assert_eq!(s.split_once(|&x| x == 0), None);
source

pub fn rsplit_once<F>(&self, pred: F) -> Option<(&[T], &[T])>
where F: FnMut(&T) -> bool,

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_split_once)

Splits the slice on the last element that matches the specified predicate.

If any matching elements are present in the slice, returns the prefix before the match and suffix after. The matching element itself is not included. If no elements match, returns None.

Examples
#![feature(slice_split_once)]
let s = [1, 2, 3, 2, 4];
assert_eq!(s.rsplit_once(|&x| x == 2), Some((
    &[1, 2, 3][..],
    &[4][..]
)));
assert_eq!(s.rsplit_once(|&x| x == 0), None);
1.0.0source

pub fn contains(&self, x: &T) -> bool
where T: PartialEq,

Returns true if the slice contains an element with the given value.

This operation is O(n).

Note that if you have a sorted slice, binary_search may be faster.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.contains(&30));
assert!(!v.contains(&50));

If you do not have a &T, but some other value that you can compare with one (for example, String implements PartialEq<str>), you can use iter().any:

let v = [String::from("hello"), String::from("world")]; // slice of `String`
assert!(v.iter().any(|e| e == "hello")); // search with `&str`
assert!(!v.iter().any(|e| e == "hi"));
1.0.0source

pub fn starts_with(&self, needle: &[T]) -> bool
where T: PartialEq,

Returns true if needle is a prefix of the slice or equal to the slice.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[10]));
assert!(v.starts_with(&[10, 40]));
assert!(v.starts_with(&v));
assert!(!v.starts_with(&[50]));
assert!(!v.starts_with(&[10, 50]));

Always returns true if needle is an empty slice:

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[]));
let v: &[u8] = &[];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[]));
1.0.0source

pub fn ends_with(&self, needle: &[T]) -> bool
where T: PartialEq,

Returns true if needle is a suffix of the slice or equal to the slice.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[30]));
assert!(v.ends_with(&[40, 30]));
assert!(v.ends_with(&v));
assert!(!v.ends_with(&[50]));
assert!(!v.ends_with(&[50, 30]));

Always returns true if needle is an empty slice:

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[]));
let v: &[u8] = &[];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[]));
1.51.0source

pub fn strip_prefix<P>(&self, prefix: &P) -> Option<&[T]>
where P: SlicePattern<Item = T> + ?Sized, T: PartialEq,

Returns a subslice with the prefix removed.

If the slice starts with prefix, returns the subslice after the prefix, wrapped in Some. If prefix is empty, simply returns the original slice. If prefix is equal to the original slice, returns an empty slice.

If the slice does not start with prefix, returns None.

Examples
let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10]), Some(&[40, 30][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10, 40]), Some(&[30][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10, 40, 30]), Some(&[][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[50]), None);
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10, 50]), None);

let prefix : &str = "he";
assert_eq!(b"hello".strip_prefix(prefix.as_bytes()),
           Some(b"llo".as_ref()));
1.51.0source

pub fn strip_suffix<P>(&self, suffix: &P) -> Option<&[T]>
where P: SlicePattern<Item = T> + ?Sized, T: PartialEq,

Returns a subslice with the suffix removed.

If the slice ends with suffix, returns the subslice before the suffix, wrapped in Some. If suffix is empty, simply returns the original slice. If suffix is equal to the original slice, returns an empty slice.

If the slice does not end with suffix, returns None.

Examples
let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[30]), Some(&[10, 40][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[40, 30]), Some(&[10][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[10, 40, 30]), Some(&[][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[50]), None);
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[50, 30]), None);

Binary searches this slice for a given element. If the slice is not sorted, the returned result is unspecified and meaningless.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. The index is chosen deterministically, but is subject to change in future versions of Rust. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search_by, binary_search_by_key, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&13),  Ok(9));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&4),   Err(7));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&100), Err(13));
let r = s.binary_search(&1);
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });

If you want to find that whole range of matching items, rather than an arbitrary matching one, that can be done using partition_point:

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

let low = s.partition_point(|x| x < &1);
assert_eq!(low, 1);
let high = s.partition_point(|x| x <= &1);
assert_eq!(high, 5);
let r = s.binary_search(&1);
assert!((low..high).contains(&r.unwrap()));

assert!(s[..low].iter().all(|&x| x < 1));
assert!(s[low..high].iter().all(|&x| x == 1));
assert!(s[high..].iter().all(|&x| x > 1));

// For something not found, the "range" of equal items is empty
assert_eq!(s.partition_point(|x| x < &11), 9);
assert_eq!(s.partition_point(|x| x <= &11), 9);
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&11), Err(9));

If you want to insert an item to a sorted vector, while maintaining sort order, consider using partition_point:

let mut s = vec![0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];
let num = 42;
let idx = s.partition_point(|&x| x <= num);
// If `num` is unique, `s.partition_point(|&x| x < num)` (with `<`) is equivalent to
// `s.binary_search(&num).unwrap_or_else(|x| x)`, but using `<=` will allow `insert`
// to shift less elements.
s.insert(idx, num);
assert_eq!(s, [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 42, 55]);
1.0.0source

pub fn binary_search_by<'a, F>(&'a self, f: F) -> Result<usize, usize>
where F: FnMut(&'a T) -> Ordering,

Binary searches this slice with a comparator function.

The comparator function should return an order code that indicates whether its argument is Less, Equal or Greater the desired target. If the slice is not sorted or if the comparator function does not implement an order consistent with the sort order of the underlying slice, the returned result is unspecified and meaningless.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. The index is chosen deterministically, but is subject to change in future versions of Rust. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by_key, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

let seek = 13;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Ok(9));
let seek = 4;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Err(7));
let seek = 100;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Err(13));
let seek = 1;
let r = s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek));
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });
1.10.0source

pub fn binary_search_by_key<'a, B, F>( &'a self, b: &B, f: F ) -> Result<usize, usize>
where F: FnMut(&'a T) -> B, B: Ord,

Binary searches this slice with a key extraction function.

Assumes that the slice is sorted by the key, for instance with sort_by_key using the same key extraction function. If the slice is not sorted by the key, the returned result is unspecified and meaningless.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. The index is chosen deterministically, but is subject to change in future versions of Rust. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements in a slice of pairs sorted by their second elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [(0, 0), (2, 1), (4, 1), (5, 1), (3, 1),
         (1, 2), (2, 3), (4, 5), (5, 8), (3, 13),
         (1, 21), (2, 34), (4, 55)];

assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&13, |&(a, b)| b),  Ok(9));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&4, |&(a, b)| b),   Err(7));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&100, |&(a, b)| b), Err(13));
let r = s.binary_search_by_key(&1, |&(a, b)| b);
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });
1.30.0source

pub unsafe fn align_to<U>(&self) -> (&[T], &[U], &[T])

Transmute the slice to a slice of another type, ensuring alignment of the types is maintained.

This method splits the slice into three distinct slices: prefix, correctly aligned middle slice of a new type, and the suffix slice. The middle part will be as big as possible under the given alignment constraint and element size.

This method has no purpose when either input element T or output element U are zero-sized and will return the original slice without splitting anything.

Safety

This method is essentially a transmute with respect to the elements in the returned middle slice, so all the usual caveats pertaining to transmute::<T, U> also apply here.

Examples

Basic usage:

unsafe {
    let bytes: [u8; 7] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7];
    let (prefix, shorts, suffix) = bytes.align_to::<u16>();
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(prefix);
    // more_efficient_algorithm_for_aligned_shorts(shorts);
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(suffix);
}
source

pub fn as_simd<const LANES: usize>(&self) -> (&[T], &[Simd<T, LANES>], &[T])

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (portable_simd)

Split a slice into a prefix, a middle of aligned SIMD types, and a suffix.

This is a safe wrapper around slice::align_to, so has the same weak postconditions as that method. You鈥檙e only assured that self.len() == prefix.len() + middle.len() * LANES + suffix.len().

Notably, all of the following are possible:

  • prefix.len() >= LANES.
  • middle.is_empty() despite self.len() >= 3 * LANES.
  • suffix.len() >= LANES.

That said, this is a safe method, so if you鈥檙e only writing safe code, then this can at most cause incorrect logic, not unsoundness.

Panics

This will panic if the size of the SIMD type is different from LANES times that of the scalar.

At the time of writing, the trait restrictions on Simd<T, LANES> keeps that from ever happening, as only power-of-two numbers of lanes are supported. It鈥檚 possible that, in the future, those restrictions might be lifted in a way that would make it possible to see panics from this method for something like LANES == 3.

Examples
#![feature(portable_simd)]
use core::simd::prelude::*;

let short = &[1, 2, 3];
let (prefix, middle, suffix) = short.as_simd::<4>();
assert_eq!(middle, []); // Not enough elements for anything in the middle

// They might be split in any possible way between prefix and suffix
let it = prefix.iter().chain(suffix).copied();
assert_eq!(it.collect::<Vec<_>>(), vec![1, 2, 3]);

fn basic_simd_sum(x: &[f32]) -> f32 {
    use std::ops::Add;
    let (prefix, middle, suffix) = x.as_simd();
    let sums = f32x4::from_array([
        prefix.iter().copied().sum(),
        0.0,
        0.0,
        suffix.iter().copied().sum(),
    ]);
    let sums = middle.iter().copied().fold(sums, f32x4::add);
    sums.reduce_sum()
}

let numbers: Vec<f32> = (1..101).map(|x| x as _).collect();
assert_eq!(basic_simd_sum(&numbers[1..99]), 4949.0);
source

pub fn is_sorted(&self) -> bool
where T: PartialOrd,

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted.

That is, for each element a and its following element b, a <= b must hold. If the slice yields exactly zero or one element, true is returned.

Note that if Self::Item is only PartialOrd, but not Ord, the above definition implies that this function returns false if any two consecutive items are not comparable.

Examples
#![feature(is_sorted)]
let empty: [i32; 0] = [];

assert!([1, 2, 2, 9].is_sorted());
assert!(![1, 3, 2, 4].is_sorted());
assert!([0].is_sorted());
assert!(empty.is_sorted());
assert!(![0.0, 1.0, f32::NAN].is_sorted());
source

pub fn is_sorted_by<'a, F>(&'a self, compare: F) -> bool
where F: FnMut(&'a T, &'a T) -> bool,

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted using the given comparator function.

Instead of using PartialOrd::partial_cmp, this function uses the given compare function to determine whether two elements are to be considered in sorted order.

Examples
#![feature(is_sorted)]

assert!([1, 2, 2, 9].is_sorted_by(|a, b| a <= b));
assert!(![1, 2, 2, 9].is_sorted_by(|a, b| a < b));

assert!([0].is_sorted_by(|a, b| true));
assert!([0].is_sorted_by(|a, b| false));

let empty: [i32; 0] = [];
assert!(empty.is_sorted_by(|a, b| false));
assert!(empty.is_sorted_by(|a, b| true));
source

pub fn is_sorted_by_key<'a, F, K>(&'a self, f: F) -> bool
where F: FnMut(&'a T) -> K, K: PartialOrd,

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted using the given key extraction function.

Instead of comparing the slice鈥檚 elements directly, this function compares the keys of the elements, as determined by f. Apart from that, it鈥檚 equivalent to is_sorted; see its documentation for more information.

Examples
#![feature(is_sorted)]

assert!(["c", "bb", "aaa"].is_sorted_by_key(|s| s.len()));
assert!(![-2i32, -1, 0, 3].is_sorted_by_key(|n| n.abs()));
1.52.0source

pub fn partition_point<P>(&self, pred: P) -> usize
where P: FnMut(&T) -> bool,

Returns the index of the partition point according to the given predicate (the index of the first element of the second partition).

The slice is assumed to be partitioned according to the given predicate. This means that all elements for which the predicate returns true are at the start of the slice and all elements for which the predicate returns false are at the end. For example, [7, 15, 3, 5, 4, 12, 6] is partitioned under the predicate x % 2 != 0 (all odd numbers are at the start, all even at the end).

If this slice is not partitioned, the returned result is unspecified and meaningless, as this method performs a kind of binary search.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by, and binary_search_by_key.

Examples
let v = [1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7];
let i = v.partition_point(|&x| x < 5);

assert_eq!(i, 4);
assert!(v[..i].iter().all(|&x| x < 5));
assert!(v[i..].iter().all(|&x| !(x < 5)));

If all elements of the slice match the predicate, including if the slice is empty, then the length of the slice will be returned:

let a = [2, 4, 8];
assert_eq!(a.partition_point(|x| x < &100), a.len());
let a: [i32; 0] = [];
assert_eq!(a.partition_point(|x| x < &100), 0);

If you want to insert an item to a sorted vector, while maintaining sort order:

let mut s = vec![0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];
let num = 42;
let idx = s.partition_point(|&x| x <= num);
s.insert(idx, num);
assert_eq!(s, [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 42, 55]);
1.0.0source

pub fn to_vec(&self) -> Vec<T>
where T: Clone,

Copies self into a new Vec.

Examples
let s = [10, 40, 30];
let x = s.to_vec();
// Here, `s` and `x` can be modified independently.
source

pub fn to_vec_in<A>(&self, alloc: A) -> Vec<T, A>
where A: Allocator, T: Clone,

馃敩This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api)

Copies self into a new Vec with an allocator.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

let s = [10, 40, 30];
let x = s.to_vec_in(System);
// Here, `s` and `x` can be modified independently.
1.40.0source

pub fn repeat(&self, n: usize) -> Vec<T>
where T: Copy,

Creates a vector by copying a slice n times.

Panics

This function will panic if the capacity would overflow.

Examples

Basic usage:

assert_eq!([1, 2].repeat(3), vec![1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2]);

A panic upon overflow:

// this will panic at runtime
b"0123456789abcdef".repeat(usize::MAX);
1.0.0source

pub fn concat<Item>(&self) -> <[T] as Concat<Item>>::Output
where [T]: Concat<Item>, Item: ?Sized,

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output.

Examples
assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].concat(), "helloworld");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].concat(), [1, 2, 3, 4]);
1.3.0source

pub fn join<Separator>( &self, sep: Separator ) -> <[T] as Join<Separator>>::Output
where [T]: Join<Separator>,

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output, placing a given separator between each.

Examples
assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].join(" "), "hello world");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].join(&0), [1, 2, 0, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].join(&[0, 0][..]), [1, 2, 0, 0, 3, 4]);
1.0.0source

pub fn connect<Separator>( &self, sep: Separator ) -> <[T] as Join<Separator>>::Output
where [T]: Join<Separator>,

馃憥Deprecated since 1.3.0: renamed to join

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output, placing a given separator between each.

Examples
assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].connect(" "), "hello world");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].connect(&0), [1, 2, 0, 3, 4]);
1.23.0source

pub fn to_ascii_uppercase(&self) -> Vec<u8>

Returns a vector containing a copy of this slice where each byte is mapped to its ASCII upper case equivalent.

ASCII letters 鈥榓鈥 to 鈥榸鈥 are mapped to 鈥楢鈥 to 鈥榋鈥, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To uppercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_uppercase.

1.23.0source

pub fn to_ascii_lowercase(&self) -> Vec<u8>

Returns a vector containing a copy of this slice where each byte is mapped to its ASCII lower case equivalent.

ASCII letters 鈥楢鈥 to 鈥榋鈥 are mapped to 鈥榓鈥 to 鈥榸鈥, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To lowercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_lowercase.

Trait Implementations

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impl AsRef<[u8]> for PyBackedBytes

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fn as_ref(&self) -> &[u8]

Converts this type into a shared reference of the (usually inferred) input type.
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impl Clone for PyBackedBytes

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fn clone(&self) -> PyBackedBytes

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl Debug for PyBackedBytes

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl Deref for PyBackedBytes

type Target = [u8]

The resulting type after dereferencing.
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fn deref(&self) -> &[u8]

Dereferences the value.
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impl From<Bound<'_, PyByteArray>> for PyBackedBytes

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fn from(py_bytearray: Bound<'_, PyByteArray>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl From<Bound<'_, PyBytes>> for PyBackedBytes

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fn from(py_bytes: Bound<'_, PyBytes>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl FromPyObject<'_> for PyBackedBytes

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fn extract_bound(obj: &Bound<'_, PyAny>) -> PyResult<Self>

Extracts Self from the bound smart pointer obj. Read more
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fn type_input() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as an argument. Read more
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impl Hash for PyBackedBytes

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fn hash<H: Hasher>(&self, state: &mut H)

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more
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fn hash_slice<H>(data: &[Self], state: &mut H)
where H: Hasher, Self: Sized,

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more
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impl Ord for PyBackedBytes

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fn cmp(&self, other: &Self) -> Ordering

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more
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fn max(self, other: Self) -> Self
where Self: Sized,

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more
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fn min(self, other: Self) -> Self
where Self: Sized,

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more
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fn clamp(self, min: Self, max: Self) -> Self
where Self: Sized + PartialOrd,

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more
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impl PartialEq<&[u8]> for PyBackedBytes

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fn eq(&self, other: &&[u8]) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl<const N: usize> PartialEq<&[u8; N]> for PyBackedBytes

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fn eq(&self, other: &&[u8; N]) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl PartialEq<[u8]> for PyBackedBytes

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fn eq(&self, other: &[u8]) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl<const N: usize> PartialEq<[u8; N]> for PyBackedBytes

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fn eq(&self, other: &[u8; N]) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl PartialEq<PyBackedBytes> for &[u8]

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fn eq(&self, other: &PyBackedBytes) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl<const N: usize> PartialEq<PyBackedBytes> for &[u8; N]

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fn eq(&self, other: &PyBackedBytes) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl PartialEq<PyBackedBytes> for [u8]

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fn eq(&self, other: &PyBackedBytes) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl<const N: usize> PartialEq<PyBackedBytes> for [u8; N]

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fn eq(&self, other: &PyBackedBytes) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl PartialEq for PyBackedBytes

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fn eq(&self, other: &Self) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl PartialOrd<[u8]> for PyBackedBytes

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fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &[u8]) -> Option<Ordering>

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
1.0.0source

fn lt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
1.0.0source

fn le(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
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fn gt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
1.0.0source

fn ge(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
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impl PartialOrd<PyBackedBytes> for [u8]

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fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &PyBackedBytes) -> Option<Ordering>

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
1.0.0source

fn lt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
1.0.0source

fn le(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
1.0.0source

fn gt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
1.0.0source

fn ge(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
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impl PartialOrd for PyBackedBytes

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fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &Self) -> Option<Ordering>

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
1.0.0source

fn lt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
1.0.0source

fn le(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
1.0.0source

fn gt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
1.0.0source

fn ge(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
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impl Eq for PyBackedBytes

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impl Send for PyBackedBytes

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impl Sync for PyBackedBytes

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

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impl<T> Any for T
where T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

impl<Q, K> Comparable<K> for Q
where Q: Ord + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

fn compare(&self, key: &K) -> Ordering

Compare self to key and return their ordering.

impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Q
where Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Checks if this value is equivalent to the given key. Read more

impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Q
where Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.
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impl<T> From<T> for T

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fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<'py, T> FromPyObjectBound<'_, 'py> for T
where T: FromPyObject<'py>,

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fn from_py_object_bound(ob: Borrowed<'_, 'py, PyAny>) -> Result<T, PyErr>

Extracts Self from the bound smart pointer obj. Read more
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fn type_input() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as an argument. Read more
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impl<T, U> Into<U> for T
where U: From<T>,

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fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<T> IntoEither for T

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fn into_either(self, into_left: bool) -> Either<Self, Self>

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left is true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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fn into_either_with<F>(self, into_left: F) -> Either<Self, Self>
where F: FnOnce(&Self) -> bool,

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left(&self) returns true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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impl<T> ToOwned for T
where T: Clone,

type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
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fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
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fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T
where U: Into<T>,

type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T
where U: TryFrom<T>,

type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T> Ungil for T
where T: Send,