Struct pyo3::prelude::Py

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pub struct Py<T>(/* private fields */);
Expand description

A GIL-independent reference to an object allocated on the Python heap.

This type does not auto-dereference to the inner object because you must prove you hold the GIL to access it. Instead, call one of its methods to access the inner object:

§Example: Storing Python objects in #[pyclass] structs

Usually Bound<'py, T> is recommended for interacting with Python objects as its lifetime 'py is an association to the GIL and that enables many operations to be done as efficiently as possible.

However, #[pyclass] structs cannot carry a lifetime, so Py<T> is the only way to store a Python object in a #[pyclass] struct.

For example, this won’t compile:

#[pyclass]
struct Foo<'py> {
    inner: Bound<'py, PyDict>,
}

impl Foo {
    fn new() -> Foo {
        let foo = Python::with_gil(|py| {
            // `py` will only last for this scope.

            // `Bound<'py, PyDict>` inherits the GIL lifetime from `py` and
            // so won't be able to outlive this closure.
            let dict: Bound<'_, PyDict> = PyDict::new_bound(py);

            // because `Foo` contains `dict` its lifetime
            // is now also tied to `py`.
            Foo { inner: dict }
        });
        // Foo is no longer valid.
        // Returning it from this function is a 💥 compiler error 💥
        foo
    }
}

Py<T> can be used to get around this by converting dict into a GIL-independent reference:

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

#[pyclass]
struct Foo {
    inner: Py<PyDict>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl Foo {
    #[new]
    fn __new__() -> Foo {
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let dict: Py<PyDict> = PyDict::new_bound(py).unbind();
            Foo { inner: dict }
        })
    }
}

This can also be done with other pyclasses:

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Bar {/* ... */}

#[pyclass]
struct Foo {
    inner: Py<Bar>,
}

#[pymethods]
impl Foo {
    #[new]
    fn __new__() -> PyResult<Foo> {
        Python::with_gil(|py| {
            let bar: Py<Bar> = Py::new(py, Bar {})?;
            Ok(Foo { inner: bar })
        })
    }
}

§Example: Shared ownership of Python objects

Py<T> can be used to share ownership of a Python object, similar to std’s Rc<T>. As with Rc<T>, cloning it increases its reference count rather than duplicating the underlying object.

This can be done using either Py::clone_ref or Py<T>’s Clone trait implementation. Py::clone_ref will be faster if you happen to be already holding the GIL.

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let first: Py<PyDict> = PyDict::new_bound(py).unbind();

    // All of these are valid syntax
    let second = Py::clone_ref(&first, py);
    let third = first.clone_ref(py);
    #[cfg(feature = "py-clone")]
    let fourth = Py::clone(&first);
    #[cfg(feature = "py-clone")]
    let fifth = first.clone();

    // Disposing of our original `Py<PyDict>` just decrements the reference count.
    drop(first);

    // They all point to the same object
    assert!(second.is(&third));
    #[cfg(feature = "py-clone")]
    assert!(fourth.is(&fifth));
    #[cfg(feature = "py-clone")]
    assert!(second.is(&fourth));
});

§Preventing reference cycles

It is easy to accidentally create reference cycles using Py<T>. The Python interpreter can break these reference cycles within pyclasses if they integrate with the garbage collector. If your pyclass contains other Python objects you should implement it to avoid leaking memory.

§A note on Python reference counts

Dropping a Py<T> will eventually decrease Python’s reference count of the pointed-to variable, allowing Python’s garbage collector to free the associated memory, but this may not happen immediately. This is because a Py<T> can be dropped at any time, but the Python reference count can only be modified when the GIL is held.

If a Py<T> is dropped while its thread happens to be holding the GIL then the Python reference count will be decreased immediately. Otherwise, the reference count will be decreased the next time the GIL is reacquired.

If you happen to be already holding the GIL, Py::drop_ref will decrease the Python reference count immediately and will execute slightly faster than relying on implicit Drops.

§A note on Send and Sync

Accessing this object is threadsafe, since any access to its API requires a Python<'py> token. As you can only get this by acquiring the GIL, Py<...> implements Send and Sync.

Implementations§

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impl<T> Py<T>
where T: PyClass,

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pub fn new( py: Python<'_>, value: impl Into<PyClassInitializer<T>> ) -> PyResult<Py<T>>

Creates a new instance Py<T> of a #[pyclass] on the Python heap.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Foo {/* fields omitted */}

let foo = Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<_> {
    let foo: Py<Foo> = Py::new(py, Foo {})?;
    Ok(foo)
})?;
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impl<T> Py<T>

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pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *mut PyObject

Returns the raw FFI pointer represented by self.

§Safety

Callers are responsible for ensuring that the pointer does not outlive self.

The reference is borrowed; callers should not decrease the reference count when they are finished with the pointer.

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pub fn into_ptr(self) -> *mut PyObject

Returns an owned raw FFI pointer represented by self.

§Safety

The reference is owned; when finished the caller should either transfer ownership of the pointer or decrease the reference count (e.g. with pyo3::ffi::Py_DecRef).

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pub fn as_any(&self) -> &Py<PyAny>

Helper to cast to Py<PyAny>.

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pub fn into_any(self) -> Py<PyAny>

Helper to cast to Py<PyAny>, transferring ownership.

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impl<T> Py<T>
where T: PyClass,

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pub fn borrow<'py>(&'py self, py: Python<'py>) -> PyRef<'py, T>

Immutably borrows the value T.

This borrow lasts while the returned PyRef exists. Multiple immutable borrows can be taken out at the same time.

For frozen classes, the simpler get is available.

Equivalent to self.bind(py).borrow() - see Bound::borrow.

§Examples
#[pyclass]
struct Foo {
    inner: u8,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let foo: Py<Foo> = Py::new(py, Foo { inner: 73 })?;
    let inner: &u8 = &foo.borrow(py).inner;

    assert_eq!(*inner, 73);
    Ok(())
})?;
§Panics

Panics if the value is currently mutably borrowed. For a non-panicking variant, use try_borrow.

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pub fn borrow_mut<'py>(&'py self, py: Python<'py>) -> PyRefMut<'py, T>
where T: PyClass<Frozen = False>,

Mutably borrows the value T.

This borrow lasts while the returned PyRefMut exists.

Equivalent to self.bind(py).borrow_mut() - see Bound::borrow_mut.

§Examples
#[pyclass]
struct Foo {
    inner: u8,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| -> PyResult<()> {
    let foo: Py<Foo> = Py::new(py, Foo { inner: 73 })?;
    foo.borrow_mut(py).inner = 35;

    assert_eq!(foo.borrow(py).inner, 35);
    Ok(())
})?;
§Panics

Panics if the value is currently borrowed. For a non-panicking variant, use try_borrow_mut.

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pub fn try_borrow<'py>( &'py self, py: Python<'py> ) -> Result<PyRef<'py, T>, PyBorrowError>

Attempts to immutably borrow the value T, returning an error if the value is currently mutably borrowed.

The borrow lasts while the returned PyRef exists.

This is the non-panicking variant of borrow.

For frozen classes, the simpler get is available.

Equivalent to self.bind(py).try_borrow() - see Bound::try_borrow.

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pub fn try_borrow_mut<'py>( &'py self, py: Python<'py> ) -> Result<PyRefMut<'py, T>, PyBorrowMutError>
where T: PyClass<Frozen = False>,

Attempts to mutably borrow the value T, returning an error if the value is currently borrowed.

The borrow lasts while the returned PyRefMut exists.

This is the non-panicking variant of borrow_mut.

Equivalent to self.bind(py).try_borrow_mut() - see Bound::try_borrow_mut.

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pub fn get(&self) -> &T
where T: PyClass<Frozen = True> + Sync,

Provide an immutable borrow of the value T without acquiring the GIL.

This is available if the class is frozen and Sync.

§Examples
use std::sync::atomic::{AtomicUsize, Ordering};

#[pyclass(frozen)]
struct FrozenCounter {
    value: AtomicUsize,
}

let cell  = Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let counter = FrozenCounter { value: AtomicUsize::new(0) };

    Py::new(py, counter).unwrap()
});

cell.get().value.fetch_add(1, Ordering::Relaxed);
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impl<T> Py<T>

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pub fn bind<'py>(&self, _py: Python<'py>) -> &Bound<'py, T>

Attaches this Py to the given Python context, allowing access to further Python APIs.

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pub fn into_bound(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Bound<'_, T>

Same as bind but takes ownership of self.

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pub fn bind_borrowed<'a, 'py>(&'a self, py: Python<'py>) -> Borrowed<'a, 'py, T>

Same as bind but produces a Borrowed<T> instead of a Bound<T>.

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pub fn is<U: AsPyPointer>(&self, o: &U) -> bool

Returns whether self and other point to the same object. To compare the equality of two objects (the == operator), use eq.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is other.

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pub fn get_refcnt(&self, _py: Python<'_>) -> isize

Gets the reference count of the ffi::PyObject pointer.

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pub fn clone_ref(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<T>

Makes a clone of self.

This creates another pointer to the same object, increasing its reference count.

You should prefer using this method over Clone if you happen to be holding the GIL already.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let first: Py<PyDict> = PyDict::new_bound(py).unbind();
    let second = Py::clone_ref(&first, py);

    // Both point to the same object
    assert!(first.is(&second));
});
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pub fn drop_ref(self, py: Python<'_>)

Drops self and immediately decreases its reference count.

This method is a micro-optimisation over Drop if you happen to be holding the GIL already.

Note that if you are using Bound, you do not need to use Self::drop_ref since Bound guarantees that the GIL is held.

§Examples
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::PyDict;

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let object: Py<PyDict> = PyDict::new_bound(py).unbind();

    // some usage of object

    object.drop_ref(py);
});
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pub fn is_none(&self, _py: Python<'_>) -> bool

Returns whether the object is considered to be None.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is None.

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pub fn is_ellipsis(&self) -> bool

👎Deprecated since 0.20.0: use .is(py.Ellipsis()) instead

Returns whether the object is Ellipsis, e.g. ....

This is equivalent to the Python expression self is ....

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pub fn is_true(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<bool>

👎Deprecated since 0.21.0: use .is_truthy() instead

Returns whether the object is considered to be true.

This is equivalent to the Python expression bool(self).

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pub fn is_truthy(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<bool>

Returns whether the object is considered to be true.

This applies truth value testing equivalent to the Python expression bool(self).

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pub fn extract<'a, 'py, D>(&'a self, py: Python<'py>) -> PyResult<D>
where D: FromPyObjectBound<'a, 'py>, 'py: 'a,

Extracts some type from the Python object.

This is a wrapper function around FromPyObject::extract().

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pub fn getattr<N>(&self, py: Python<'_>, attr_name: N) -> PyResult<PyObject>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>,

Retrieves an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name.

If calling this method becomes performance-critical, the intern! macro can be used to intern attr_name, thereby avoiding repeated temporary allocations of Python strings.

§Example: intern!ing the attribute name
#[pyfunction]
fn version(sys: Py<PyModule>, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<PyObject> {
    sys.getattr(py, intern!(py, "version"))
}
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pub fn setattr<N, V>( &self, py: Python<'_>, attr_name: N, value: V ) -> PyResult<()>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>, V: IntoPy<Py<PyAny>>,

Sets an attribute value.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.attr_name = value.

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern attr_name.

§Example: intern!ing the attribute name
#[pyfunction]
fn set_answer(ob: PyObject, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<()> {
    ob.setattr(py, intern!(py, "answer"), 42)
}
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pub fn call_bound( &self, py: Python<'_>, args: impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>, kwargs: Option<&Bound<'_, PyDict>> ) -> PyResult<PyObject>

Calls the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args, **kwargs).

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pub fn call1( &self, py: Python<'_>, args: impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> ) -> PyResult<PyObject>

Calls the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self(*args).

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pub fn call0(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<PyObject>

Calls the object without arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self().

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pub fn call_method_bound<N, A>( &self, py: Python<'_>, name: N, args: A, kwargs: Option<&Bound<'_, PyDict>> ) -> PyResult<PyObject>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>, A: IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>,

Calls a method on the object.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args, **kwargs).

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

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pub fn call_method1<N, A>( &self, py: Python<'_>, name: N, args: A ) -> PyResult<PyObject>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>, A: IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>>,

Calls a method on the object with only positional arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name(*args).

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

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pub fn call_method0<N>(&self, py: Python<'_>, name: N) -> PyResult<PyObject>
where N: IntoPy<Py<PyString>>,

Calls a method on the object with no arguments.

This is equivalent to the Python expression self.name().

To avoid repeated temporary allocations of Python strings, the intern! macro can be used to intern name.

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pub unsafe fn from_owned_ptr(py: Python<'_>, ptr: *mut PyObject) -> Py<T>

Create a Py<T> instance by taking ownership of the given FFI pointer.

§Safety

ptr must be a pointer to a Python object of type T.

Callers must own the object referred to by ptr, as this function implicitly takes ownership of that object.

§Panics

Panics if ptr is null.

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pub unsafe fn from_owned_ptr_or_err( py: Python<'_>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> PyResult<Py<T>>

Create a Py<T> instance by taking ownership of the given FFI pointer.

If ptr is null then the current Python exception is fetched as a PyErr.

§Safety

If non-null, ptr must be a pointer to a Python object of type T.

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pub unsafe fn from_owned_ptr_or_opt( _py: Python<'_>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> Option<Self>

Create a Py<T> instance by taking ownership of the given FFI pointer.

If ptr is null then None is returned.

§Safety

If non-null, ptr must be a pointer to a Python object of type T.

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pub unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr(py: Python<'_>, ptr: *mut PyObject) -> Py<T>

Create a Py<T> instance by creating a new reference from the given FFI pointer.

§Safety

ptr must be a pointer to a Python object of type T.

§Panics

Panics if ptr is null.

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pub unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr_or_err( py: Python<'_>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> PyResult<Self>

Create a Py<T> instance by creating a new reference from the given FFI pointer.

If ptr is null then the current Python exception is fetched as a PyErr.

§Safety

ptr must be a pointer to a Python object of type T.

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pub unsafe fn from_borrowed_ptr_or_opt( _py: Python<'_>, ptr: *mut PyObject ) -> Option<Self>

Create a Py<T> instance by creating a new reference from the given FFI pointer.

If ptr is null then None is returned.

§Safety

ptr must be a pointer to a Python object of type T.

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impl Py<PyAny>

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pub fn downcast_bound<'py, T>( &self, py: Python<'py> ) -> Result<&Bound<'py, T>, DowncastError<'_, 'py>>
where T: PyTypeCheck,

Downcast this PyObject to a concrete Python type or pyclass.

Note that you can often avoid downcasting yourself by just specifying the desired type in function or method signatures. However, manual downcasting is sometimes necessary.

For extracting a Rust-only type, see Py::extract.

§Example: Downcasting to a specific Python object
use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::{PyDict, PyList};

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let any: PyObject = PyDict::new_bound(py).into();

    assert!(any.downcast_bound::<PyDict>(py).is_ok());
    assert!(any.downcast_bound::<PyList>(py).is_err());
});
§Example: Getting a reference to a pyclass

This is useful if you want to mutate a PyObject that might actually be a pyclass.

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyclass]
struct Class {
    i: i32,
}

Python::with_gil(|py| {
    let class: PyObject = Py::new(py, Class { i: 0 }).unwrap().into_py(py);

    let class_bound = class.downcast_bound::<Class>(py)?;

    class_bound.borrow_mut().i += 1;

    // Alternatively you can get a `PyRefMut` directly
    let class_ref: PyRefMut<'_, Class> = class.extract(py)?;
    assert_eq!(class_ref.i, 1);
    Ok(())
})
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pub unsafe fn downcast_bound_unchecked<'py, T>( &self, py: Python<'py> ) -> &Bound<'py, T>

Casts the PyObject to a concrete Python object type without checking validity.

§Safety

Callers must ensure that the type is valid or risk type confusion.

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impl Py<PyBytes>

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pub fn as_bytes<'a>(&'a self, py: Python<'_>) -> &'a [u8]

Gets the Python bytes as a byte slice. Because Python bytes are immutable, the result may be used for as long as the reference to self is held, including when the GIL is released.

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impl Py<PyString>

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pub fn to_str<'a>(&'a self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<&'a str>

Gets the Python string as a Rust UTF-8 string slice.

Returns a UnicodeEncodeError if the input is not valid unicode (containing unpaired surrogates).

Because str objects are immutable, the returned slice is independent of the GIL lifetime.

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pub fn to_cow<'a>(&'a self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyResult<Cow<'a, str>>

Converts the PyString into a Rust string, avoiding copying when possible.

Returns a UnicodeEncodeError if the input is not valid unicode (containing unpaired surrogates).

Because str objects are immutable, the returned slice is independent of the GIL lifetime.

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pub fn to_string_lossy<'a>(&'a self, py: Python<'_>) -> Cow<'a, str>

Converts the PyString into a Rust string.

Unpaired surrogates invalid UTF-8 sequences are replaced with U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER.

Because str objects are immutable, the returned slice is independent of the GIL lifetime.

Trait Implementations§

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impl<T> AsPyPointer for Py<T>

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fn as_ptr(&self) -> *mut PyObject

Gets the underlying FFI pointer, returns a borrowed pointer.

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impl<T> Clone for Py<T>

If the GIL is held this increments self’s reference count. Otherwise, it will panic.

Only available if the py-clone feature is enabled.

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fn clone(&self) -> Self

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl<T> Debug for Py<T>

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<'de, T> Deserialize<'de> for Py<T>
where T: PyClass<BaseType = PyAny> + Deserialize<'de>,

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fn deserialize<D>(deserializer: D) -> Result<Py<T>, D::Error>
where D: Deserializer<'de>,

Deserialize this value from the given Serde deserializer. Read more
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impl<T> Display for Py<T>
where T: PyTypeInfo,

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<T> Drop for Py<T>

Dropping a Py instance decrements the reference count on the object by one if the GIL is held.

Otherwise and by default, this registers the underlying pointer to have its reference count decremented the next time PyO3 acquires the GIL.

However, if the pyo3_disable_reference_pool conditional compilation flag is enabled, it will abort the process.

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fn drop(&mut self)

Executes the destructor for this type. Read more
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impl<T> From<Bound<'_, T>> for Py<T>

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fn from(other: Bound<'_, T>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T> From<Py<T>> for PyObject
where T: AsRef<PyAny>,

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fn from(other: Py<T>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T: PyClass> From<Py<T>> for PyClassInitializer<T>

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fn from(value: Py<T>) -> PyClassInitializer<T>

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<'a, T> From<PyRef<'a, T>> for Py<T>
where T: PyClass,

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fn from(pyref: PyRef<'a, T>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<'a, T> From<PyRefMut<'a, T>> for Py<T>
where T: PyClass<Frozen = False>,

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fn from(pyref: PyRefMut<'a, T>) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl<T> FromPyObject<'_> for Py<T>
where T: PyTypeCheck,

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fn extract_bound(ob: &Bound<'_, PyAny>) -> PyResult<Self>

Extracts Self from the source PyObject.

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fn type_input() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as an argument. Read more
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impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &'a [u8]

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &Bound<'_, T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Converts &Bound instance -> PyObject, increasing the reference count.

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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &OsStr

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &'a OsString

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &'a Path

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &'a PathBuf

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &Py<T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &PyAny

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &'a PyErr

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T: PyClass> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &PyRef<'_, T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T: PyClass<Frozen = False>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &PyRefMut<'_, T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &'a String

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &T
where T: AsRef<PyAny>,

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for &'a str

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T, const N: usize> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for [T; N]
where T: IntoPy<PyObject>,

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for ()

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0,)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>, T8: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>, T8: IntoPy<PyObject>, T9: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>, T8: IntoPy<PyObject>, T9: IntoPy<PyObject>, T10: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>, T8: IntoPy<PyObject>, T9: IntoPy<PyObject>, T10: IntoPy<PyObject>, T11: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<K, V> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for BTreeMap<K, V>
where K: Eq + IntoPy<PyObject>, V: IntoPy<PyObject>,

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<K> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for BTreeSet<K>
where K: IntoPy<PyObject> + Ord,

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for BigInt

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for BigUint

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Borrowed<'_, '_, T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Converts Py instance -> PyObject.

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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Bound<'_, T>

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fn into_py(self, _py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Converts a Bound instance to PyObject.

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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T: Copy + IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Cell<T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Complex<f32>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Complex<f64>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Coroutine

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Cow<'_, [u8]>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyAny>

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Cow<'_, OsStr>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Cow<'_, str>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Cow<'a, Path>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<Tz: TimeZone> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for DateTime<Tz>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Decimal

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Duration

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<L, R> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Either<L, R>
where L: IntoPy<PyObject>, R: IntoPy<PyObject>,

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for FixedOffset

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<K, V, H> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for HashMap<K, V, H>
where K: Hash + Eq + IntoPy<PyObject>, V: IntoPy<PyObject>, H: BuildHasher,

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<K, V, H> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for HashMap<K, V, H>
where K: Hash + Eq + IntoPy<PyObject>, V: IntoPy<PyObject>, H: BuildHasher,

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<K, S> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for HashSet<K, S>
where K: IntoPy<PyObject> + Eq + Hash, S: BuildHasher + Default,

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<K, S> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for HashSet<K, S>
where K: IntoPy<PyObject> + Eq + Hash, S: BuildHasher + Default,

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<K, V, H> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for IndexMap<K, V, H>
where K: Hash + Eq + IntoPy<PyObject>, V: IntoPy<PyObject>, H: BuildHasher,

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for IpAddr

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NaiveDate

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NaiveDateTime

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NaiveTime

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroI128

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroI16

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroI32

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroI64

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroI8

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroIsize

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroU128

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroU16

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroU32

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroU64

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroU8

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for NonZeroUsize

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Option<T>
where T: IntoPy<PyObject>,

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for OsString

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for PathBuf

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Py<T>

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fn into_py(self, _py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Converts a Py instance to PyObject. Consumes self without calling Py_DECREF().

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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for PyErr

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T: PyClass> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for PyRef<'_, T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T: PyClass<Frozen = False>> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for PyRefMut<'_, T>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Ratio<BigInt>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Ratio<i16>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Ratio<i32>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Ratio<i64>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Ratio<i8>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Ratio<isize>

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<A> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for SmallVec<A>
where A: Array, A::Item: IntoPy<PyObject>,

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for String

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for SystemTime

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Duration

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Utc

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl<T> IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for Vec<T>
where T: IntoPy<PyObject>,

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for bool

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for char

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for f32

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for f64

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
source§

impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for i128

source§

fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
source§

fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for i16

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for i32

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for i64

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for i8

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for isize

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for u128

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for u16

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for u32

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for u64

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for u8

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> for usize

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyString>> for &Bound<'_, PyString>

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fn into_py(self, _py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyString>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyString>> for &Py<PyString>

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyString>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<'a> IntoPy<Py<PyString>> for &'a str

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyString>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyString>> for Bound<'_, PyString>

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fn into_py(self, _py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyString>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for &Bound<'_, PyTuple>

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fn into_py(self, _: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for ()

Converts () to an empty Python tuple.

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0,)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>, T8: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>, T8: IntoPy<PyObject>, T9: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>, T8: IntoPy<PyObject>, T9: IntoPy<PyObject>, T10: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T0: IntoPy<PyObject>, T1: IntoPy<PyObject>, T2: IntoPy<PyObject>, T3: IntoPy<PyObject>, T4: IntoPy<PyObject>, T5: IntoPy<PyObject>, T6: IntoPy<PyObject>, T7: IntoPy<PyObject>, T8: IntoPy<PyObject>, T9: IntoPy<PyObject>, T10: IntoPy<PyObject>, T11: IntoPy<PyObject>> IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11)

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fn into_py(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl IntoPy<Py<PyTuple>> for Bound<'_, PyTuple>

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fn into_py(self, _: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyTuple>

Performs the conversion.
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fn type_output() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as a return value. Read more
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impl<T> Serialize for Py<T>
where T: Serialize + PyClass,

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fn serialize<S>( &self, serializer: S ) -> Result<<S as Serializer>::Ok, <S as Serializer>::Error>
where S: Serializer,

Serialize this value into the given Serde serializer. Read more
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impl<T> ToPyObject for Py<T>

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fn to_object(&self, py: Python<'_>) -> PyObject

Converts Py instance -> PyObject.

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impl<T> Send for Py<T>

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impl<T> Sync for Py<T>

Auto Trait Implementations§

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impl<T> Freeze for Py<T>

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impl<T> RefUnwindSafe for Py<T>
where T: RefUnwindSafe,

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impl<T> Unpin for Py<T>
where T: Unpin,

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impl<T> UnwindSafe for Py<T>
where T: UnwindSafe,

Blanket Implementations§

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impl<T> Any for T
where T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> From<T> for T

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fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<'py, T> FromPyObjectBound<'_, 'py> for T
where T: FromPyObject<'py>,

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fn from_py_object_bound(ob: Borrowed<'_, 'py, PyAny>) -> Result<T, PyErr>

Extracts Self from the bound smart pointer obj. Read more
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fn type_input() -> TypeInfo

Extracts the type hint information for this type when it appears as an argument. Read more
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impl<T, U> Into<U> for T
where U: From<T>,

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fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<T> IntoEither for T

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fn into_either(self, into_left: bool) -> Either<Self, Self>

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left is true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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fn into_either_with<F>(self, into_left: F) -> Either<Self, Self>
where F: FnOnce(&Self) -> bool,

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left(&self) returns true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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impl<T> PyErrArguments for T
where T: IntoPy<Py<PyAny>> + Send + Sync,

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fn arguments(self, py: Python<'_>) -> Py<PyAny>

Arguments for exception
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impl<T> ToOwned for T
where T: Clone,

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type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
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fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
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fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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impl<T> ToString for T
where T: Display + ?Sized,

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default fn to_string(&self) -> String

Converts the given value to a String. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T
where U: Into<T>,

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type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T
where U: TryFrom<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T> DeserializeOwned for T
where T: for<'de> Deserialize<'de>,

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impl<T> Ungil for T
where T: Send,